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Table 4 Illness perceptions, total score and comparison of genders; and causal attributions, response categories and examples

From: Young adults at risk of early work disability: who are they?

  Total (N = 72) Men (n = 48) Women (n = 24)  
Continuous items, 0–10 Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD p-value
Consequences 5.85 ± 3.08 5.48 ± 2.97 6.58 ± 3.22 .153
Timeline 7.38 ± 3.21 7.69 ± 3.15 6.78 ± 3.33 .275
Personal control 5.69 ± 3.18 5.36 ± 3.17 6.33 ± 3.17 .226
Treatment control 4.28 ± 2.98 4.88 ± 2.95 3.21 ± 2.78 .026
Identity 5.66 ± 2.81 5.20 ± 2.70 6.50 ± 2.87 .069
Concern 4.63 ± 3.01 4.11 ± 2.78 5.63 ± 3.24 .045
Coherence 3.82 ± 3.23 3.45 ± 3.16 4.54 ± 3.30 .178
Emotional response 6.18 ± 3.09 6.09 ± 2.96 6.38 ± 3.39 .711
Causal attribution, open-ended Number of responsesa Example of response
 Relational 20 “Loneliness”
 Health behavior 16 “Used various types of drugs”
 Hereditary/genetic 13 “Genetics”
 External environment 11 “Living situation”
 Bullying 6 “Bullied in childhood”
 Childhood 6 “A lot of moving [...] during my first 7 years”
 Psychological 6 “Social anxiety”
 Self-control/coping 5 “Bad choices”
 Traumatic life events 5 “Sexual abuse”
 Unknown 5 “Cause not explained”
 Other categoriesb 18  
  1. a51 participants provided 111 open-ended responses
  2. bCategories with fewer than five respondents (somatic, injury, pressure/demands, financial, fate/fortune) are not reported
  3. All values in boldface in the p-value column are statistically significant at the 0.05 level