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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of app users and non-app users

From: The use of geosocial networking smartphone applications and the risk of sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author (Year) Age Mean ± SD or n (%) Sexual orientation n (%) Race/ethnicity n (%) Education n (%)
Group app users non-app users Group app users non-app users Group app users non-app users Group app users non-app users
Goedel (2015) 18–66 31.73 ± 10.7 NR Gay 71 (77.2) NR White 58 (63.0) NR <College 45 (48.9) NR
Other 21 (22.8) Other 34 (37.0) ≥College 47 (51.1)
Goedel (2016)
Duncan (2016)
18–30
≥31
98 (56.6) NR Gay 146 (84.9) NR White 69 (39.9) NR <College 96 (55.5) NR
75 (43.4) Other 26 (15.1) Other 104 (60.1) ≥College 77 (44.5)
Phillips (2014) 18–34 160 (66.4) 70 (50.7) Gay 220 (91.7) 111 (81.6) White 120 (49.8) 60 (43.5) <College 44 (18.3) 22 (15.9)
≥35 81 (33.6) 68 (49.3) Other 20 (8.3) 25 (18.4) Other 121 (50.2) 78 (56.5) ≥College 197 (81.7) 116 (84.1)
Rhoton (2016) ≥18 29.46 ± 8.20 NR Gay 2 (0.4) NR NR <College 384 (87.0) NR
Other 406 (90.4) ≥College 57 (12.0)
Holloway (2015)
Holloway (2015)
≥25 30.66 ± 6.68 NR Gay 265 (90.1) NR White 152 (51.5) NR <College 33 (11.2) NR
Other 29 (9.9) Other 143 (48.5) ≥College 262 (88.8)
Ko (2016) 18–54 27.3 ± 6.8 26.5 ± 6.6 NR NR <College 69 (17.3) 120 (18.2)
≥College 331 (82.7) 540 (81.8)
Beymer (2014) ≤29 1287 (49.7) 1823 (27.9) NR White 1366 (52.8) 2198 (47.8) <College 287 (11.1) 753 (16.4)
≥30 1302 (50.3) 2772 (72.1) Other 1223 (47.2) 2397 (52.2) ≥College 2302 (88.9) 3842 (83.6)
Beymer (2016) NR NR White 109 (74.7) NR <College 17 (11.6) NR
Other 37 (25.3) ≥College 129 (88.4)
Yeo (2016) 17–26 21.52 ± 2.29 NR Gay 159 (74.6) NR Chinese 206 (96.7) NR <College 47 (22.2) NR
Other 54 (25.4) Other 7 (3.3) ≥College 165 (77.8)
Winetrobe (2014)
Rice (2012)
18–24 21.8 ± 1.7 NR Gay 168 (86.2) NR White 76 (39.0) NR <College 30 (15.4) NR
Other 27 (13.8) Other 119 (61.0) ≥College 165 (84.6)
Tang (2016) ≤29 680 (82.5) 424 (70.7) Gay 626 (76.0) 412 (68.7) NR <College 186 (22.6) 183 (30.5)
≥30 144 (17.5) 176 (29.3) Other 198 (24.0) 188 (31.3) ≥College 638 (77.4) 417 (69.5)
Muessig (2013)
LeGrand (2014)
18–30 24 ± 3.0 NR NR Black 22 (100) NR NR
Chow (2016)
Chow (2017)
NR NR NR NR
Allen (2017) 18–29
≥30
65 (34.6) 212 (37.8) Gay 164 (87.2) 434 (77.4) Black 86 (45.7) 270 (48.1) <College 125 (66.5) 389 (69.3)
123 (65.4) 349 (62.2) Other 24 (12.8) 127 (22.6) Hispanic 102 (54.3) 291 (51.9) ≥College 63 (33.5) 172 (30.7)
Bien (2015) 16–25
≥26
156 (28.6) 161 (20.2) Gay 428 (78.7) 543 (69.1) NR <College 224 (41.5) 396 (50.1)
389 (71.4) 636 (79.8) Other 116 (21.3) 243 (30.9) ≥College 316 (58.5) 395 (49.9)
Rendina (2014) ≥18 30.1 ± 9.1 NR Gay 1162 (86.0) NR White 666 (49.3) NR NR
Other 189 (14.0) Other 685 (50.7)
Grosskopf (2014) NR Mdn 24.83 Mdn 27.75 NR White 30 (76.9) 47 (54) <College 5 (13.9) 15 (21.7)
Other 9 (23.1) 40 (46) ≥College 31 (86.1) 54 (78.3)
Goedel (2016) 18–30
≥31
94 (62.7) NR Gay 126 (84.0) NR White 66 (44.0) NR <College 64 (42.7) NR
56 (37.3) Other 24 (16.0) Other 84 (56.0) ≥College 86 (57.3)
Lehmiller (2014) NR 30.7 ± 10.1 28.9 ± 11.7 Gay (86.9) (73.1) White (86.7) (86.0) NR
Other (13.1) (26.9) Other (13.3) (14.0)
Goedel (2017) 18–30
≥31
78 (38.6) NR Gay 176 (87.1) NR White 143 (72.2) NR NR
124 (61.4) Other 26 (12.9) Other 55 (27.8)
Landovitz (2013) 18–29
≥30
349 (93.1) NR NR White 159 (42.4) NR NR
26 (6.9) Other 216 (57.6)
Burrell (2012) 18–30 (56.0) (18.8) NR White (44.0) (30.4) ≥College (68.0) (40.3)
Cao (2017) ≤29 393 (80.7) 241 (63.9) Gay 373 (76.6) 257 (68.2) NR <College 119 (24.4) 122 (32.4)
≥30 94 (19.3) 136 (36.1) Other 114 (23.4) 120 (31.8) ≥College 368 (75.6) 255 (67.6)
PhillipsII (2015) 18–29 18–29 NR Gay 1668 (83.6) NR White 1207 (63.7) NR <College 809 (40.6) NR
Other 327 (16.4) Other 688 (36.3) ≥College 1186 (59.4)
Weiss (2017) 15–29 163 (47.2) NR NR NR NR
≥30 182 (52.8)
  1. Abbreviations: SD Standard Deviation; <College, Less than college; ≥College, College or above; Mdn Median age, NR not reported