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Table 2 Standardized Coefficients Obtained From Multiple Regression Analyses Predicting QOL Scores from Health Literacy Levels and Characteristics without and with Controlling for Covariate

From: The association between quality of life(QOL) and health literacy among junior middle school students: a cross-sectional study

Independent Variable(s) Unadjusted Modela(N = 1774) Fully adjusted Modelb(N = 1774)
b(SE) P-Value b(SE) P-Value
Health literacy levels
 low −12.7 (1.1) < 0.0001 −9.3 (1.1) < 0.0001
 Medium −6.8 (1.0) < 0.0001 −5.0 (0.9) < 0.0001
 high Ref.   Ref.  
Sex
 Male Ref.   Ref.  
 Female −3.5 (0.8) < 0.0001 −4.5 (0.7) < 0.0001
Grade
 7th Ref.   Ref.  
 8th 1.3 (1.0) 0.1845 1.6 (0.9) 0.0766
 9th −3.0 (1.0) 0.0035 −1.8 (0.9) 0.0494
Place of residence
 Rural Ref.   Ref.  
 Urban 2.8 (0.8) 0.0007 1.8 (0.9) 0.0494
Only child
 Yes Ref.   Ref.  
 No 0.6 (0.8) 0.4630 −0.1 (0.8) 0.9349
Father’s education level
 Low Ref.   Ref.  
 Medium 2.8 (0.9) 0.0037 0.7 (0.9) 0.4498
 High 4.2 (1.4) 0.0027 −0.4 (1.5) 0.8149
Mother’s education level
 Low Ref.   Ref.  
 Medium 4.1 (0.9) < 0.0001 2.2 (0.9) 0.0184
 High 4.2 (1.5) 0.0069 2.2 (1.6) 0.1868
Economic status
 Poor Ref.   Ref.  
 Medium 8.6 (1.2) < 0.0001 4.2 (1.1) < 0.0001
 Good 12.5 (1.5) < 0.0001 6.0 (1.4) 0.0001
Family relationship
 Poor Ref.   Ref.  
 Neutral l 10.8 (1.9) < 0.0001 9.9 (1.8) < 0.0001
 Harmonious 21.7 (1.8) < 0.0001 18.8 (1.8) < 0.0001
Perception of school achievement
 Bad Ref.   Ref.  
 Medium 6.2 (1.0) < 0.0001 4.0 (0.9) < 0.0001
 Fair 7.5 (1.0) < 0.0001 4.2 (0.9) < 0.0001
  1. a Unadjusted model: multiple linear regression models with QOL scores as the dependent variable, health literacy levels as the independent variable, adjusting for no characteristic
  2. b Fully adjusted model: adjusting for all covariates, including sex, grade, place of residence, whether an only child, parents’ education level, household income, family relationship, student’s perception of school achievement, and health literacy levels