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Table 7 Risk of Bias assessment tool (based on QUIPS, Hayden et al. [13])

From: Determinants of participation in voluntary work: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies

Domain Items
1. Study participation 1a. Method used to identify population: recruitment of participants for the study was performed in a consecutive way
1b. Adequate study participation: at least 70% of recruited individuals agreed to participate
2. Study attrition 2a. Adequate follow-up rate: at least 80% of the baseline study participants participated at follow-up
2b. There are no important differences between participants who completed the study and those who did not
3. Determinant measurement 3a. Adequate proportion of complete data: at least 70% of the study sample has complete data on the determinant(s)
3b. The method and setting of determinant measurement is the same for all study participants
3c. Appropriate methods of imputation are used for missing determinant data
4. Outcome measurement 4a. Outcome measure truly captures participation in voluntary work and does not allow for participation in informal caregiving or other productive activities not equal to volunteering, unless subgroups are made for the distinct forms of participation
4b. The method and setting of outcome measurement is the same for all study participants
5. Study confounding 5a. The following potentially important confounders are measured:
a1. age
a2. socioeconomic status (e.g. education, income)
a3. gender
a4. participation in voluntary work at baseline
5b. The method and setting of measurement of the confounders is the same for all study participants
5c. Appropriate methods of imputation are used for missing data regarding the confounders
5d. The following potentially important confounders are accounted for in the study design (e.g., matching for key variables, stratification, or initial assembly of comparable groups) or in the analysis (i.e., appropriate adjustment)
d1. age
d2. socioeconomic status (e.g. education, income)
d3. gender
d4. participation in voluntary work at baseline
6. Statistical analysis and reporting 6a. The selected statistical model is adequate for the design of the study design
6b. There is no over fitting (at least 10 participants in the smallest group per determinant and outcome variable)
6c. There is no selective reporting of results
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