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Table 5 Univariate random effects meta-regression (methods of moments) and subgroup analyses for MARITAL STATUS (married/partnered)

From: Determinants of participation in voluntary work: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies

  Subgroup analyses Results from meta-regression
Results Heterogeneity
Variable Subgroup Number of studies OR 95% CI P-value I 2 Coefficient SD P-value
Outcome measurement Mixed 1 1.124 0.682–1.853 N.A. N.A. Reference
Formal 9 (14 different samples) 1.053 0.931–1.192 0.001 62% −0.0650 0.3067 0.832
Proportion of volunteers (%) in baseline study sample Continuous 9a (14 different samples) 1.087 0.968–1.221 0.045 43% − 0.0002 0.0002 0.385
0–100% 8 (9 different samples) 1.071 0.917–1.250 0.001 70% Reference   
0% 2 (3 different samples) 1.052 0.902–1.227 0.381 0% 0.0468 0.1907 0.806
100% 2 (3 different samples) 1.080 0.564–2.066 0.175 43% −0.1253 0.2095 0.550
Mean age at baseline Continuous 8b (12 different samples) 1.147 1.001–1.315 0.112 35% − 0.0008 0.0004 0.030
≤ 55 years 6 (8 different samples) 1.140 0.911–1.427 0.000 76% Reference   
>  55 years 5 (7 different samples) 0.999 0.913–1.092 0.539 0% −0.1477 0.1419 0.300
Continent USA 4 1.065 0.870–1.304 0.049 62% Reference
Europe 6 (11 different samples) 1.054 0.904–1.230 0.009 57% −0.0106 0.1314 0.936
Year of baseline measurement Continuous 10 (15 different samples) 1.055 0.937–1.188 0.002 59% 0.0088 0.0096 0.361
<  2006 8 (11 different samples) 1.055 0.928–1.199 0.000 69% Reference   
≥ 2006 3 (4 different samples) 1.081 0.742–1.575 0.522 0% 0.0295 0.2251 0.896
Duration of follow-up Continuous 10 (15 different samples) 1.055 0.937–1.188 0.002 59% −0.0111 0.0115 0.335
≤ 3 years 3 (7 different samples) 0.990 0.830–1.180 0.274 20% Reference   
4–7 years 2 1.096 0.822–1.463 0.905 0% 0.0776 0.2315 0.737
≥ 8 years 5 (6 different samples) 1.082 0.896–1.306 0.000 81% 0.0580 0.1499 0.699
Risk of bias items
 Study participation Unclear/high risk of bias 9 (12 different samples) 1.004 0.897–1.124 0.019 52% Reference
Low risk of bias 2 (3 different samples) 1.353 1.105–1.657 0.478 0% 0.3106 0.1563 0.047
 Study confounding Unclear/high risk of bias 2 0.846 0.766–0.935 0.763 0% Reference
Low risk of bias 8 (13 different samples) 1.115 0.994–1.252 0.083 38% 0.2803 0.1113 0.012
  1. aThe study of Bartels et al. (2013) is not included in this analysis, because the proportion of volunteers (%) in the baseline study sample is not reported
  2. bThe studies of Bartels et al. (2013) and Hank & Erlinghagen (2010) are not included in this analysis, because the mean age at baseline is not reported
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