Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Determinants of participation in voluntary work: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies

Author Cohort Country Study populationa Mean ageb SD ageb Range ageb (years) Female (%) Year of baselinec Study duration (years) Waves (n) Outcome Outcome measurement Type of voluntary workd Sample size (n) Volunteering at baseline (%) Volunteering at follow-up (%)
Ajrouch et al. [18] SRHLCe USAf Adults aged ≥50 y 53,9 N.R.g 50-100 60,3 1992 13 2 Volunteering {No vs. Yes} “Do you do any volunteering?” Mixed 499 N.R. 32,3
Bartels et al. [19] BHPSh UKi Employed individuals aged ≤60 y N.R. N.R. N.R. N.R. 1991 16 11 Volunteering {Yes vs. No} Volunteering is measured as “being active in organizations” Formal 12,378 N.R. N.R.
Bekkers [20] GINPSj NLk N.R. N.R. N.R. N.R. N.R. 2002 4 3 - Volunteer engagement
- Volunteer cessation
Volunteering is measured as “being active as a volunteer in the past year” Mixed 1233l;
731m
56,6 44,1
Broese van Groenou & Van Tilburg [21] LASAn NL Adults aged between 55 and 69 65,1 5,0 55–69 N.R. 1992o/2002p 6 3q Volunteering {Yes vs. No} Current volunteering Formal 1357o; 1388p 38,0o/45,0p N.R.
Choi & Chou [22] MIDUSr USA English speaking adults aged 55–84 y at wave 2 with ≥1 telephone in the household N.R. N.R. N.R. 54,0 1995/1996 9 2 - Volunteer engagement
- Volunteer cessation
“On average, about how many hours per month do you spend doing formal volunteer work?” Formal 917 35,6 41,4
Cramm & Nieboer [23] N.A.s NL Older adults aged ≥70 y living in Rotterdam 77,5 5,8 70–101 57,0 2011 2 2 Volunteering {Yes vs. No} Voluntary activities carried out in the past year Formal 588 18,5 15,5
Curl et al. [24] HRSt USA Adults aged ≥65 y reported being able to drive at baseline 73,8 6,5 N.R. 48,3 1998 12 7 Volunteering {Yes vs. No} Voluntary work carried out in the past 12 months Formal 4788 34,6 N.R.
Curl et al. [25] HRSt USA Respondents and spouses, aged ≥65 y, able to drive at baseline 73,9u/ 71,5v 5,4u / 5,0v N.R. 50,0 1998 12 7 Volunteering {Yes vs. No} Voluntary work carried out in the past 12 months Formal 2914w 40,0u / 41,5v N.R.
Einolf & Philbrick [26] PSIDx USA Individuals never married at baseline N.R. N.R. N.R. N.R. 2003 2 2 -Volunteering {Yes vs. No}
-Religious volunteering {Yes vs. No}
“How often did you volunteer at or through….” Formal 452y; 610z Rates at baseline and follow-up are not presented. Average rates for the two waves: 25,3%aa; 15,5%ab
Hank & Erlinghagen [27] SHAREac 11 European countries Individuals aged ≥50 y N.R. N.R. N.R. N.R. 2004/2005 2 2 - Volunteer engagement
- Volunteer cessation
“Have you done any of these activities in the last month?” - “done voluntary or charity work” Formal 18,057 10,0 10,8
Johnston [28] ACLad USA Individuals aged 25 and older living in the contiguous US. 54,0ae N.R. N.R. 54,0 1986 16 4 - Volunteering {Yes vs. No}
- Religious institution volunteering {Yes vs. No}
- Nonreligious institution volunteering {Yes vs. No}
Volunteer work done in the last year Formal 1283af; 983ag; 1272ah 40,0 53,0
Lim & Mac Gregor [29] FMai USA Respondents who report that they do not attend religious services on a regular basis 47,3 16,0 N.R. 47,0 2006 5 2 Volunteering {Yes vs. No} Volunteering in the past 12 months Mixed 510 46,0 51,0
McNamara & Gonzales [30] HRSt USA Individuals aged 50–80 63,0aj N.R. N.R. 58,7 2000/2001 8 5 -Volunteer engagement
-Volunteer cessation
“Have you spend any time in the past 12 months doing volunteer work for charitable organizations?” Formal 4611ak; 2961al 45,1 N.R.
Mike et al. [31] HRSt USA Individuals ≥50 y, not volunteering and currently working/unemployed/retired 71,9 10,37 N.R. 54,0 2006/2008 2 2 Volunteering {Yes vs. No} “Have you spent any time in the past year volunteering?” Mixed 5017 0,0 13,6
Nesbit [32] PSIDx USA Household heads and their spouses 44,0 N.R. N.R. 55,0 2003 2 2 -Religious volunteering {Yes vs. No}
-Secular volunteering {Yes vs. No)
Volunteering in the last year Formal 11299am; 11354an 27,0 29,0
Okun et al. [33] ACLad USA Individuals aged ≥65 y, reported volunteering in the past year 71,9 5,5 N.R. 71,0 1986 3 2 Volunteer cessation Having done volunteer work in the last 12 months Formal 380 100,0 61,0
Parkinson [34] ALSWHao Australia Women aged 70–75 y N.R. N.R. N.R. 100 1996 9 4 Volunteering {Yes vs. No} “Do you do any volunteer work for any community or social organizations?” Mixed 7088 N.R. 24,5
Pavlova & Silbereisen [35] Jena studyap Germany Individuals aged 16–43 and 56–75 years 38,1aq / 60,2ar 3,9aq / 3,9ar N.R. 57,4aq / 44,6ar 2005ar/2009as 1 2 -Volunteer engagement
-Volunteer cessation
Participation in voluntary work in the past 12 months Formal 1560aq; 518ar 20,6ar; 34.5as 31,3
Pavlova & Silbereisen [36] Jena Studyap Germany Individuals aged 56–75 years 65,9 5,8 56–76 52,4 2009 1 2 Volunteering {Yes vs. No} Participation in voluntary work in the past 12 months Formal 602 32,5 35,9
Son & Wilson [37] MIDUSr USA English speaking adults aged 25–74 y, living in the coterminous US 42,8 12,5 N.R. 55,0 1995 10 2 Volunteering {Yes vs. No} “On average, about how many hours do you spend per month doing volunteer work?” Formal 3257 39,0 43,0
Son & Wilson [38] MIDUSr USA English speaking adults aged 25–74 y, living in the coterminous US 42,8 12,5 N.R. 55,0 1995 10 2 Volunteering {Yes vs. No} “On average, about how many hours do you spend per month doing volunteer work?” Formal 3257 39,0 43,0
Son & Wilson [39] MIDUSr USA English speaking adults aged 25–74 y, living in the coterminous US 42,8 12,5 N.R. 55,0 1995 10 2 Volunteering {Yes vs. No} “On average, about how many hours do you spend per month doing volunteer work?” Formal 3257 39,0 43,0
Voorpostel & Coffé [40] SHPas Switzer-land Adults aged 18–60 y 43,6at /44,2au 12,0at /11,8au 18–60 55,0 1999 8 9 Volunteering {Yes vs. No} “Do you have honorary or voluntary activities within an association, an organization or an institution?” Formal 8185av 42,5aw / 31,6ax 39,5aw / 29,5ax
Voorpostel & Coffé [41] SHPas Switzer-land Adults aged 18–26 y, no change in partnership of parents during study 21,0 2,4 18–26 47,0 1999 10 11 Volunteering {Yes vs. No} “Do you have honorary or voluntary activities within an association, an organization or an institution?” Formal 3199ay Volunteering rates at baseline and follow-up are not presented. The average overall volunteering rate for the two waves is 34,9
  1. aAll included studies represent (subgroups of) the general population. Specification of subgroups is provided here
  2. bMeasured at baseline, unless denoted otherwise
  3. cRepresents the measurement in the year that is used as baseline for the analysis
  4. dType: Formal volunteering (through an organization), Mixed (no distinction between formal and informal volunteering, or type of volunteering (formal/informal) not specified
  5. eSocial Relations and Health over the Life Course
  6. fUnited States of America
  7. gNot Reported
  8. hBritish Household Panel Survey
  9. iUnited Kingdom
  10. jGiving in the Netherlands Panel Study
  11. kThe Netherlands
  12. lVolunteers
  13. mNon-volunteers
  14. nLongitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam
  15. oCohort 1
  16. pCohort 2
  17. qFor each cohort
  18. rSurvey of Midlife Development in the United States
  19. sNot applicable
  20. tHealth and Retirement Study
  21. uHusbands
  22. vWives
  23. w1457 couples
  24. xPanel Study of Income Dynamics
  25. yMales
  26. zFemales
  27. aaVolunteering
  28. abReligious volunteering
  29. acSurvey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe
  30. adAmerican’s Changing Lives Study
  31. aeApproximately
  32. afVolunteering sample
  33. agReligious institution volunteering sample
  34. ahNonreligious institution volunteering sample
  35. aiFaith Matters Survey
  36. ajMean age is measured over all included waves
  37. akOutcome engagement
  38. alOutcome cessation
  39. amReligious volunteering
  40. anSecular volunteering
  41. aoAustralian Longitudinal Study On Womens Health
  42. apJena Study on Social Change and Human Development
  43. aqSample 1 Age group 30–43
  44. arSample 2 Age group 56–75
  45. asSwitzerland Household Panel
  46. atMales, measured at follow-up
  47. auFemales, measured at follow-up
  48. av3692 males and 4493 females
  49. awMales
  50. axFemales
  51. ay1788 respondents and their mothers and 1331 respondents and their fathers
\