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Table 3 The results (β/SE/Sig) of separate linear regressions for each country of life satisfaction against first social inequality (Gini index), then welfare generosity (total expenditure on social protection, PPS, in thousand euros), and unemployment while controlling for gender, age and age2

From: Measures that increase social equality are effective in improving life satisfaction in times of economic crisis

Country Social inequality Welfare generosity Unemployment
Unstandardized Standardized   Unstandardized Standardized Unstandardized Standardized  
B Std. Error Beta Sig. B Std. Error Beta Sig. B Std. Error Beta Sig.
AT − 0.067 0.069 − 0.010 0.335 0.020 0.037 0.006 0.597 − 1.220 0.137 − 0.096 0.000
BE −0.014 0.017 −0.007 0.421 0.040 0.019 0.020 0.038 − 1.159 0.086 −0.121 0.000
BG 0.114 0.028 0.043 0.000 0.014 0.074 0.002 0.853 − 1.427 0.094 −0.165 0.000
CH −0.061 0.015 −0.035 0.000 0.017 0.016 0.011 0.277 − 1.447 0.104 −0.125 0.000
CY −0.115 0.024 −0.072 0.000 −0.395 0.062 −0.096 0.000 − 1.093 0.140 −0.118 0.000
CZ −0.120 0.036 −0.029 0.001 0.024 0.034 0.007 0.490 − 1.469 0.097 −0.133 0.000
DE −0.299 0.017 −0.119 0.000 0.292 0.016 0.126 0.000 − 2.042 0.073 −0.193 0.000
DK −0.011 0.013 −0.008 0.377 −0.013 0.013 −0.010 0.326 −0.858 0.081 −0.102 0.000
EE −0.144 0.019 −0.071 0.000 0.255 0.038 0.062 0.000 − 1.513 0.114 −0.122 0.000
ES −0.075 0.016 −0.044 0.000 −0.050 0.035 −0.014 0.145 − 1.222 0.073 −0.156 0.000
FI −0.060 0.037 −0.014 0.104 0.002 0.012 0.001 0.874 −0.942 0.073 −0.108 0.000
FR −0.014 0.016 −0.007 0.401 0.058 0.021 0.024 0.006 − 1.690 0.097 −0.150 0.000
GB −0.053 0.017 −0.027 0.002 0.105 0.036 0.027 0.003 − 1.097 0.094 −0.102 0.000
GR 0.019 0.049 0.004 0.699 −0.279 0.028 −0.099 0.000 − 1.036 0.099 − 0.106 0.000
HU 0.058 0.018 0.032 0.001 0.111 0.116 0.010 0.337 − 1.442 0.118 −0.121 0.000
IE 0.170 0.021 0.065 0.000 −0.398 0.020 −0.159 0.000 − 1.515 0.068 −0.180 0.000
IT 0.110 0.137 0.013 0.422 −0.107 0.048 −0.037 0.024 − 1.091 0.153 −0.119 0.000
NL −0.073 0.013 −0.050 0.000 0.079 0.015 0.051 0.000 −0.989 0.084 −0.102 0.000
NO −0.057 0.008 −0.065 0.000 0.105 0.014 0.074 0.000 − 1.135 0.104 −0.100 0.000
PL −0.367 0.022 −0.146 0.000 0.598 0.048 0.129 0.000 − 1.286 0.092 −0.124 0.000
PT −0.144 0.018 −0.072 0.000 0.420 0.053 0.075 0.000 −0.624 0.080 −0.069 0.000
RU −0.164 0.093 −0.017 0.078      −0.950 0.150 −0.062 0.000
SE 0.039 0.044 0.008 0.370 0.026 0.030 0.008 0.385 − 1.234 0.083 −0.131 0.000
SI −0.034 0.009 −0.039 0.000 −0.057 0.065 −0.010 0.385 − 1.092 0.109 −0.101 0.000
SK −0.394 0.028 −0.153 0.000 0.741 0.043 0.183 0.000 − 1.590 0.104 −0.163 0.000
UA −0.113 0.012 −0.092 0.000      − 1.106 0.117 −0.093 0.000