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Table 2 Results (Beta (SE)) of multilevel analysis of satisfaction with life (individual level)

From: Measures that increase social equality are effective in improving life satisfaction in times of economic crisis

  Satisfaction with life (β/SE/Sig) Total Pre FC Post FC
Social inequality alone Gini index − 0.070 (0.003)*** − 0.030 (0.006)*** − 0.094 (0.008)***
Unemployment −1.315 (0.019)*** − 1.386 (.031)*** −1.240 (.024)***
Social inequality controlled for welfare generosity (PPS) Gini index − 0.052 (.004)*** − 0.027 (.007)*** − 0.053 (.009)***
Unemployment −1.360 (.020)*** −1.454 (.035)*** − 1.274 (.025)***
Total public expenditure social protection PPS 0.030 (006)*** 0.006(.022)NS 0.114 (.012)***
  1. All analyses using multilevel (country levels). Russia and Ukraine removed from analysis due to missing data
  2. Baseline included controlled for gender, age, and age2, with all three variables entered as fixed
  3. Range: Unemployment = 0–1 (No/Yes); Gini = 23.7–42.3; Social expenditure in PPS per thousand = 1.3–12.0
  4. FC Financial Crisis, PPS = Common currency in which national accounts aggregates are adjusted for price level differences using PPPs.
  5. NS = Not Significant; * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; and *** p < 0.001