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Table 3 Determinants of the four nutritional risk factors: high reported dietary salt and sugar and low intake of fruits and vegetables, STEPS survey Kenya, 2015

From: Dietary risk factors for non-communicable diseases in Kenya: findings of the STEPS survey, 2015

  High dietary salt (Adjusted OR, 95% CI) High dietary sugar (Adjusted OR, 95% CI) Low fruit intake (Adjusted OR, 95% CI) Low vegetable intake (Adjudged OR, 95% CI)
Age group
 18–29 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 30–39 0.83 (0.70, 0.98) 1.10 (0.87, 1.40) 1.03 (0.83, 1.27) 0.78 (0.54, 1.13)
 40–49 0.68 (0.56, 0.83) 0.79 (0.62, 1.02) 1.05 (0.82, 1.33) 0.54 (0.34, 0.87)
 50–59 0.53 (0.42, 0.67) 0.77 (0.58, 1.03) 1.07 (0.81, 1.41) 0.32 (0.19, 0.55)
 60–69 0.46 (0.33, 0.62) 0.54 (0.38, 0.76) 1.15 (0.81, 1.62) 0.23 (0.12, 0.45)
Sex
 Female 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Male 1.53 (1.33, 1.76) 1.02 (0.84, 1.24) 1.41 (1.17, 1.69) 1.80 (1.25, 2.60)
Residence
 Rural 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Urban 1.46 (1.24, 1.72) 1.4 (1.1, 1.78) 0.90 (0.72, 1.12) 1.12 (0.7, 1.78)
Education level
 No formal education 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Primary complete 1.06 (0.85, 1.32) 2.09 (1.61, 2.7) 0.28 (0.22, 0.35) 0.07 (0.05, 0.10)
 Secondary and above 1.21 (0.95, 1.55) 2.15 (1.59, 2.9) 0.16 (0.12, 0.21) 0.05 (0.03, 0.09)
Marital status
 Not married 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Married 0.83 (0.69, 1.00) 0.73 (0.55, 0.96) 1.01 (0.79, 1.28) 0.74 (0.47, 1.18)
Wealth band
 Poorest 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Second 1.14 (0.93, 1.41) 0.84 (0.64, 1.09) 0.69 (0.56, 0.86) 0.24 (0.15, 0.37)
 Middle 1.05 (0.84, 1.31) 1.13 (0.84, 1.52) 0.39 (0.31, 0.51) 0.25 (0.15, 0.41)
 Fourth 1.75 (1.38, 2.21) 1.25 (0.90, 1.72) 0.34 (0.26, 0.45) 0.23 (0.13, 0.41)
 Richest 1.64 (1.26, 2.14) 1.07 (0.74, 1.56) 0.24 (0.17, 0.35 0.10 (0.05, 0.22)
Occupation
 Not employed 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Employed 1.56 (1.26, 1.93) 0.84 (0.64, 1.10) 0.76 (0.60, 0.97) 1.58 (0.96, 2.60)
 Student 1.94 (1.39, 2.71) 6.66 (2.59, 17.16) 0.79 (0.52, 1.20) 2.66 (1.24, 5.70)
 Homemaker 1.73 (1.35, 2.22) 1.26 (0.92, 1.74) 1.01 (0.77, 1.33) 2.98 (1.75, 5.05)
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