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Table 2 Determinants of uptake of cervical cancer screening

From: Predictors of cervical cancer screening among Kenyan women: results of a nested case-control study in a nationally representative survey

Cancer screen Crude Odds Ratio Adjusted Odds Ratio
OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Age group
 30–34 1.00   1.00  
 35–39 0.62 (0.41, 0.94) 0.024 0.54 (0.32, 0.90) 0.018
 40–44 1.45 (0.98, 2.14) 0.063 1.50 (0.90, 2.52) 0.121
 45–49 0.85 (0.52, 1.39) 0.517 1.00 (0.53, 1.88) 0.988
Marital status
 Not married 1.00    
 Married 0.86 (0.48, 1.55) 0.618 1.48 (0.73, 3.02) 0.275
 Formerly married 1.04 (0.53, 2.02) 0.912 1.58 (0.70, 3.59) 0.270
Education level
 No formal education 1.00   1.00  
 Primary incomplete 4.80 (2.03, 11.34) 0.000 0.83 (0.28, 2.53) 0.749
 Primary complete 6.21 (2.65, 14.51) 0.000 0.63 (0.20, 1.99) 0.426
 Secondary and above 10.03 (4.35, 23.12) 0.000 0.76 (0.24, 2.46) 0.653
Occupation
 Unemployed 1.00   1.00  
 Employed 2.59 (1.25, 5.36) 0.010 1.76 (0.69, 4.52) 0.236
 Homemaker 0.91 (0.45, 1.81) 0.783 2.24 (0.99, 5.10) 0.054
 Non-paid/volunteer 1 (empty)   1 (empty)  
 Self-employed 1.59 (0.81, 3.12) 0.180 2.55 (1.12, 5.81) 0.026
 Student 20.92 (0.02, 22921.15) 0.395 545.08 (0.34, 873199.6) 0.094
Wealth band
 Poorest 1.00   1.00  
 Second 3.35 (1.59, 7.04) 0.001 1.48 (0.59, 3.74) 0.403
 Middle 6.63 (3.23, 13.62) 0.000 2.26 (0.92, 5.59) 0.076
 Fourth 9.18 (4.43, 19.02) 0.000 3.12 (1.19, 8.21) 0.021
 Richest 11.39 (5.55, 23.36) 0.000 2.19 (0.76, 6.31) 0.148
Residence
 Rural 1.00   1.00  
 Urban 1.87 (1.35, 2.57) 0.000 0.82 (0.51, 1.33) 0.421
Heard of cervical cancer
 No 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 59.47 (23.29, 151.87) 0.000 66.75 (23.77, 187.43) 0.000
Tobacco use
 No 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 0.40 (0.12, 1.27) 0.119 0.71 (0.12, 4.42) 0.717
Alcohol consumption
 No alcohol 1.00   1.00  
 Binge drinking 2.78 (1.25, 6.19) 0.012 5.94 (1.52, 23.15) 0.010
 Non-heavy drinking 2.78 (1.18, 6.60) 0.020 3.78 (0.96, 14.84) 0.057
Inadequate fruits and vegetables
 No 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 0.42 (0.28, 0.64) 0.000 0.79 (0.46, 1.37) 0.404
Excess sugar
 No 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 2.10 (1.25, 3.54) 0.005 3.17 (1.61, 6.21) 0.001
Salt intake
 Low 1.00   1.00  
 High (above 7) 0.81 (0.52, 1.26) 0.344 1.17 (0.65, 2.12) 0.601
Physical activity
 Sufficient 1.00   1.00  
 Insufficient 2.04 (1.20, 3.47) 0.009 2.76 (1.34, 5.67) 0.006
Diabetes
 No 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 1.68 (0.74, 3.81) 0.211 1.37 (0.46, 4.13) 0.574
Hypertension
 No 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 1.31 (0.92, 1.88) 0.135 0.99 (0.64, 1.55) 0.974
HDL
 Normal 1.00   1.00  
 Low 0.67 (0.41, 1.09) 0.104 0.50 (0.28, 0.88) 0.016
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