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Table 2 Risk factors for diabetes by gender

From: Prevalence and factors associated with pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus in Kenya: results from a national survey

Indicator Both Female Male p-value
% n % n % n
Insufficient Physical activitya 80.1 3262 81.2 1999 79.1 1263 0.266
Waist circumference obesity b 31.6 1483 50.2 1287 12.1 196 < 0.001
High sugar intake c 15.0 584 13.5 353 16.5 231 0.105
BMI ≥25 kg/m2 28.1 1224 39.1 912 17.4 312 < 0.001
Low HDL cholesterol e 53.1 2207 59.9 1201 45.9 1006 < 0.001
High blood pressured 24.8 1147 23.6 693 26.0 454 0.178
Current tobacco use f 13.2 485 3.9 104 22.8 381 < 0.001
Harmful use of alcohol g 15.3 469 4.8 82 26.3 387 < 0.001
Bad fat intake h 39.4 1686 35.3 939 43.7 747 0.002
High salt consumption i 89.6 3567 89.1 2151 90.1 1416 0.437
Diabetes j 2.5 135 2.9 42 2.1 93 0.163
Prediabetes k 3.1 142 3.2 55 2.9 87 0.667
High total cholesterol l 7.3 480 9.8 341 4.6 139 0.001
Mean total cholesterol [95% CI] 5.1 [3.0;7.2] 4.0 [2.9;5.0] 6.2 [2.3;10.2]  
Mean HDL cholesterol [95% CI] 1.19 [1.16;1.22] 1.12 [1.08;1.17] 1.26 [1.21;1.30]  
Mean glucose [95% CI] 4.6 [4.5;4.7] 4.5 [4.4;4.6] 4.7 [4.6;4.8]  
Mean systolic blood pressure [95% CI] 124.2 [123.1;125.2] 126.9 [125.5;128.3] 121.6 [120.3;122.9]  
Mean diastolic pressure [95% CI] 80.4 [79.7;81.1] 80.2 [79.2;81.3] 80.6 [79.8;81.3]  
Mean age [95% CI] 34.3 [33.4:35.3] 34.6 [33.4;35.9] 34.0 [33.1;35.0]  
Total (N) 4069 4069 2462 2462 1607 1607  
  1. aInsufficient physical activity in this study was defined as self-reports of less than 150 min of moderate intensive activity or less than 75 min of vigorous intensive physical activity per week, including walking and cycling, b Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥ 94 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women, c High sugar intake was defined as self-reports of far too much or too much consumption of sugar in a day, d High blood pressure was defined as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg, or previous diagnosis of hypertension or being on antihypertensive therapy, e Low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) was defined as HDL-C < 1 mmol/l for men and < 1.3 mmol/l for women, f Tobacco use was defined as self-reported current use of smoked tobacco or smokeless tobacco products, g Harmful use of alcohol was defined as consumption of more than 1 standard drink (which is the amount of alcohol you find in a small beer, one glass of wine, or one tot of spirits) per day for females and more than 2 standard drinks for males, h Bad fat intake was defined as self-reported use of saturated fats e.g. lard, margarine, butter and vegetable fat for cooking, I High salt consumption was defined as self-report of far too much or too much consumption of actual salt y and in processed, adding salt when cooking and/or to cooked food, j diabetes was defined as fasting blood glucose of 7 mmol/l or more or a self-report of previous diagnosis of diabetes by a health care professional or currently receiving treatment for diabetes, k Pre-diabetes was defined as impaired fasting blood glucose (IFG) of 6.1 mmol/l to less than 7 mmol/l, l High cholesterol was defined as total cholesterol ≥5.0 mmol/L or are currently on medication for raised cholesterol, Missing data: Physical inactivity (52), sugar intake (1), Hypertension (16), HDL (1), BMI (155), alcohol intake (5), fat intake (3), total cholesterol (1), P-values derived from chi-square test
  2. italicized p-values are significant