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Table 1 Specification of categories and included outcomes used for the analysis of self-management as given by the ADA [5]

From: Self-management of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

Category Specification Included Outcomes
Healthy eating General awareness of its importance, awareness of importance of measuring and portioning meals, adherence to an eating plan Eating behavior, knowledge on diet recommendations, presence of and adherence to a diet plan
Being active General awareness, existence of and adherence to an activity plan (with information on frequency, intensity, time and type of activity), glucose checking before and after sports Knowledge on activity recommendations, presence of and adherence to an activity plan
Monitoring General awareness, conducting SMBG (including information on frequency), keeping record of results, ability to analyze results Awareness of SMBG, Availability of a glucose meter at home, frequency of SMBG
Taking Medication Awareness of the kind of prescribed medicine, adherence to the medication plan Prescribed medication, medication adherence, awareness that medication needs to be taken throughout the life-time
Reducing Risks Awareness of possible complications, tobacco consumption, regular doctor appointments, taking care of feet Awareness of consequences of uncontrolled Diabetes, consultations of specialists, self-care behavior, cigarette intake
Psychosocial Aspects Environmental, social, emotional burden of diabetes Support by relatives, emotional and environmental aspects