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Table 2 Summary of Findings (SoF) Table

From: Effectiveness of targeting fathers for breastfeeding promotion: systematic review and meta-analysis

Effectiveness of targeting fathers for breast feeding promotion
P - Expectant and new fathers
I – Health education on breast feeding
C – Educating only the mother
O – Promotion of breast feeding
Outcomes Assumed riska Corresponding riskb Relative effect No. of participants (studies) Quality of evidence GRADE Comments
Exclusive BF for six months 201 per 1000 411 per 1000 (318 to 534) RR = 2.04 (1.58–2.65) 587 [71,72,73,74] (4 studies) Moderatec Meta-analysis done
EBF for four months 194 per 1000 294 per 1000 (221 to 393) RR = 1.52 (1.14 to 2.03) 507 [72, 73, 77] (3 studies) Lowd Meta-analysis done
Full formula feeding within two months 247 per1000 170 per 1000 (128 to 230) RR = 0.69 (0.52 to 0.93) 721 [73, 76] (2 studies) Moderatee Meta-analysis done
Support of the father 548 per 1000 783 per 1000 (668 to 920) RR = 1.43f (1.22 to 1.68) 383 [73, 75, 78] (3 studies) Highg Meta-analysis done for two studies [75, 78] and narrative synthesis done for one study [73]
In the third study (Su 2016), fathers in the intervention group knew how to support continuation of breast feeding. When a breastfeeding related problem occurred, they provided solid support. The fathers in the control group did not know how to support even if they wanted to.
Knowledge of the mothers on breast feeding (BKS scale and a developed tool) In one study (Su 2016), mothers’ knowledge on breastfeeding increased by 19.75 points in the experimental group and by 14.81 in the control group (p = 0.009). In another study (Raesi 2014), the pre-study knowledge was not significantly different in the two groups whereas the post-intervention knowledge was 103 in the experimental group and 95.71 in the control group (P < 0.0001). 169 [73, 75] (2 studies) Moderateh Narrative synthesis done
Breast feeding related problems 179 per 1000 43 per 1000 (18 to 102) RR = 0.24 (0.10 to 0.57) 280 [71] (1 study) Highi Narrative synthesis done
Maternal attitudes towards breast feeding (IIFAS scale) The increase of maternal attitudes towards breastfeeding was significantly more in the intervention group (p = 0.001) 69 [73] (1 study) Moderatej Narrative synthesis done
  1. aTotal events divided by the total participants in the control group
  2. bFunction of “assumed risk” and the “relative effect”
  3. cQuality was downgraded due to risk of bias (2 points) and upgraded for large effect (1 point)
  4. dQuality was downgraded due to risk of bias (2 points)
  5. eQuality was downgraded due to risk of bias (1 points)
  6. fMeta-analysis was done for findings of two studies as the third was heterogeneous
  7. gQuality was downgraded due to risk of bias (1 points) and upgraded for large effect (1 point)
  8. hQuality was downgraded due to risk of bias (2 points) and upgraded for large effect (1 point)
  9. iQuality was downgraded due to risk of bias (1 points) and upgraded for large effect (1 point)
  10. jQuality was downgraded due to risk of bias (2 points) and upgraded for large effect (1 point)