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Table 3 Four CAFES neasurement scales, room and table/display subscales, and individual CAFES item descriptions

From: Cafeteria assessment for elementary schools (CAFES): development, reliability testing, and predictive validity analysis

ROOM SCALE (50 total points)a
Excluded item examples: cafeteria color, material, decoration (subjectivity); kitchen/serving area size (lack of variability).
Ambient Env. (9) Appearance (9) Windows (8) Layout & Visibility (8) Healthy Signage (2) Kitchen & Serving Area (14)
Eating area temperature (2), odor, crowding (2), ceiling height, lighting, noise, music Eating area attractiveness, physical condition, furniture condition, clutter, cleanliness; serving area attractiveness, physical condition, clutter, cleanliness Eating area window presence, condition, quantity, view of nature, operability, transparency; window screen presence; window treatment presence Student circulation, plan obstructions, menu location, lack of display space, lack of prep area, food/beverage visibility from cafeteria, vending machine visibility from eating area Presence of healthy & unhealthy diet or physical activity promotional signage (2) Lunch prepped at school/not; serving area equipment condition, lighting; kitchen presence, attractiveness, cleanliness, clutter, lighting, physical condition, equipment condition & availability, window presence, storage space availability (2)
TABLE/DISPLAY SCALE (133 total points)
Excluded item examples: serving item order, serving vessel fullness/size, spot lighting, and serving surface color/material (lack of variability);
Beyond CAFES scope: Kitchen and serving area equipment inventory.
Furniture (4) Availability (77) Display Layout/Presentation (14) Serving Method (19) Variety (19)
Eating area furniture attractiveness, table shape; seating (bench or individual seats; attached or moveable) Weekly availability: food items (55), a la carte items (6), beverage items (10); fundraisers (2), vending availability (2); age appropriate portion sizes; ice cream cooler availability Fruit presentation (1), FV close to register (1), FV in first 3 visible items (1), milk layout (2), menu item naming (1), food item labeling (1), serving area food attractiveness (1), milk location (4), ice cream lid transparency (1), out of reach/by request only items (1) Tray rest available, serving tray use, self-serve option & for which items (4); large trays or premeasured portions (3), packaging transparency (3); sharing table availability, second servings allowed (2), offer vs. serve (4) Weekly availability: more than one main course (6), fruit (6), vegetable (6) offered; milk quantities offered
PLATE SCALE (4 total points)
Excluded item examples: serving tray color, number and size of serving tray compartments, packaging of items on tray (high variability).
Beyond CAFES scope: serving utensil size/color, food/beverage packaging characteristics of items on serving trays.
Serving tray area (1), choice of color (1), and material (Styrofoam/weak plastic containers or not; 1); utensils (forks, knives, & spoons available or not; 1)
FOOD SCALE (11 total points)
Excluded item examples: individual food item packaging, labeling, and presentation.
Beyond CAFES scope: food color, temperature, taste, texture, attractiveness, food preferences.
Reheat frequency (6), avg # fruits/meal (1), avg # vegetables/meal (1), # meals w/ breaded/fried item (1); % raw FV (1); fresh fruit whole or sliced (1)
  1. aParenthetical numbers indicate the total points from internally consistent CAFES items based on reliability testing
  2. FV Fruits and vegetables