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Table 2 Distribution of risk factors among GERD and non-GERD groups after matching n (%)

From: Gastroesophageal reflux disease and its related factors among women of reproductive age: Korea Nurses’ Health Study

Variables GERD
(n = 1184)
Non-GERD
(n = 1184)
Total
(N = 2368)
t2 p-value
Cigarette smoking
 Non-smoker 1128 (95.2) 1157 (97.7) 2285 (96.5) 10.56 .005
 Former smoker 40 (3.4) 20 (1.7) 60 (2.5)   
 Current smoker 16 (1.4) 7 (0.6) 23 (1.0)   
Alcohol consumption
 Non-drinker 112 (9.5) 126 (10.6) 238 (10.1) 1.72 .633
 Less than 1/month 598 (50.5) 608 (51.4) 1206 (50.9)   
 2–4/month 339 (28.6) 316 (26.7) 655 (27.7)   
 More than 2/week 135 (11.4) 134 (11.3) 269 (11.3)   
BMI
 Normal 731 (61.7) 810 (68.4) 1541 (65.1) 11.69 .003
 Underweight 218 (18.4) 176 (14.9) 394 (16.6)   
 Overweight 235 (19.9) 198 (16.7) 433 (18.3)   
Depression
 Minimal 340 (28.8) 440 (37.2) 780 (32.9) 30.12 <.001
 Mild 448 (37.8) 453 (38.3) 901 (38.1)   
 Moderate 224 (18.9) 177 (14.9) 401 (16.9)   
 Moderately severe 121 (10.2) 80 (6.8) 201 (8.5)   
 Severe 51 (4.3) 34 (2.8) 85 (3.6)   
  1. Note: BMI body mass index