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Table 5 Fixed effect estimates of population density and school grade on step counts by gender and school grade

From: Lower youth steps/day values observed at both high and low population density areas: a cross-sectional study in metropolitan Tokyo

  Lowest Lower Middle Higher Highest School grade
Estimates (SE)a Estimates (SE) Estimates (SE) Estimates (SE) Estimates (SE) Estimates (SE)
Daily total step count
 Boys
  Low grade, elementary school − 1072 (582) − 577 (871) ref. 4 (700) − 914 (455) 129 (89)
p = 0.07 p = 0.51 p = 1.00 p = 0.04 p = 0.15
  High grade, elementary school − 1274 (665) −113 (993) ref. − 696 (820) − 1390 (531) −287 (88)
p = 0.06 p = 0.91 p = 0.40 p = 0.01 p < 0.01
  Junior high school − 569 (658) 1094 (1000) ref. − 130 (818) − 418 (532) − 918 (94)
p = 0.39 p = 0.27 p = 0.87 p = 0.43 p < 0.01
 Girls
  Low grade, elementary school − 686 (505) 209 (757) ref. −63 (620) − 545 (400) −50 (68)
p = 0.17 p = 0.78 p = 0.92 p = 0.17 p = 0.46
  High grade, elementary school −993 (508) 54 (755) ref. − 628 (623) − 916 (402) − 416 (62)
p = 0.05 p = 0.94 p = 0.31 p = 0.02 p < 0.01
  Junior high school − 1230 (577) 905 (867) ref. − 483 (715) −1100 (462) − 778 (75)
p = 0.03 p = 0.30 p = 0.50 p = 0.02 p < 0.01
In-school step count
 Boys
  Low grade, elementary school 101 (336) 260 (510) ref. 187 (414) −43 (268) 153 (43)
p = 0.76 p = 0.61 p = 0.65 p = 0.87 p < 0.01
  High grade, elementary school − 439 (350) 34 (523) ref. − 273 (432) −455 (280) −59 (46)
p = 0.21 p = 0.95 p = 0.53 p = 0.10 p = 0.20
  Junior high school 788 (349) 693 (533) ref. − 260 (437) 95 (284) − 183 (48)
p = 0.02 p = 0.19 p = 0.55 p = 0.74 p < 0.01
 Girls
  Low grade, elementary school 368 (330) 628 (509) ref. 452 (418) 67 (270) 109 (33)
p = 0.27 p = 0.22 p = 0.28 p = 0.80 < 0.01
  High grade, elementary school − 341 (280) −54 (419) ref. − 144 (345) − 290 (223) − 129 (32)
p = 0.22 p = 0.90 p = 0.68 p = 0.19 < 0.01
  Junior high school 822 (360) 678 (554) ref. − 571 (456) −324 (295) − 155 (34)
p = 0.02 p = 0.22 p = 0.21 p = 0.27 < 0.01
Out-of-school step count
 Boys
  Low grade, elementary school − 1134 (519) − 837 (782) ref. −177 (632) − 869 (410) −25 (73)
p = 0.03 p = 0.28 p = 0.78 p = 0.03 p = 0.73
  High grade, elementary school − 815 (456) − 149 (662) ref. −424 (547) − 938 (355) − 227 (73)
p = 0.07 p = 0.82 p = 0.44 p = 0.01 p < 0.01
  Junior high school − 1358 (471) 403 (707) ref. 128 (578) − 513 (376) − 736 (77)
p < 0.01 p = 0.57 p = 0.83 p = 0.17 p < 0.01
 Girls
  Low grade, elementary school − 973 (384) − 421 (569) ref. − 517 (466) − 613 (301) −162 (57)
p = 0.01 p = 0.46 p = 0.27 p = 0.04 p < 0.01
  High grade, elementary school −627 (368) 110 (539) ref. −483 (445) − 625 (287) − 288 (52)
p = 0.09 p = 0.84 p = 0.28 p = 0.03 p < 0.01
  Junior high school −2016 (413) 235 (607) ref. 95 (501) −762 (324) − 626 (66)
p < 0.01 p = 0.70 p = 0.85 p = 0.02 p < 0.01
  1. a Estimates of fixed effect were shown with standard errors