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Table 2 Effects of age and body mass index (BMI) on period trends for hypertension prevalence and mean blood pressure by sex, Samoa, 1991–2013

From: Continued increases in blood pressure over two decades in Samoa (1991–2013); around one-third of the increase explained by rising obesity levels

Variable in the model Effect of period on hypertension trends over 23 years (1991–2013)
Men Women
RR (95%CI) HT % 2013^ RR (95%CI) HT % 2013^
1. Period 2.02 (1.64–2.49) 33.1 1.95 (1.59–2.38) 27.3
2. Period and Age 1.90 (1.55–2.34) 31.1 1.82 (1.49–2.22) 25.5
Proportional attenuation (1–2) a 6.06% 6.06% 6.70% 6.70%
3. Period, Age and BMI 1.54 (1.25–1.90) 25.2 1.47 (1.21–1.80) 20.7
Proportional attenuation (2–3) a 18.9% 18.9% 18.9% 18.9%
Variable in the model Increase and mean SBP (mmHg) over 23 years (1991–2013)
  SBP (95%CI) SBP 2013^ SBP (95%CI) SBP 2013^
1. Period 9.77 (8.23–11.32) 131.5 6.87 (5.27–8.47) 125.3
2. Period and Age 9.20 (7.69–10.71) 130.9 5.96 (4.51–7.41) 124.4
Proportional attenuation (1–2) a 5.84% 5.84% 13.2% 13.2%
3. Period, Age and BMI 7.17 (5.72–8.63) 128.9 4.04 (2.60–5.49) 122.5
Proportional attenuation (2–3) a 22.1% 22.1% 32.2% 32.2%
Variable in the model Increase and mean DBP (mmHg) over 23 years (1991–2013)
  DBP (95%CI) DBP 2013^ DBP (95%CI) DBP 2013^
1. Period 6.58 (5.37–7.79) 80.6 8.26 (7.19–9.33) 81.1
2. Period and Age 5.97 (4.81–7.13) 80.0 7.85 (6.82–8.87) 80.7
Proportional attenuation (1–2) a 9.18% 9.18% 5.0% 5.0%
3. Period, Age and BMI 3.77 (2.70–4.84) 77.8 5.32 (4.35–6.29) 78.2
Proportional attenuation (2–3) a 36.9% 36.9% 32.2% 32.2%
  1. 1–3: Regression models; RR [relative risk]; HT [hypertension]; SBP [systolic blood pressure]; DBP [diastolic blood pressure]; aProportional decline from previous model; ^ [predicted HT prevalence and mean SBP/DBP in 2013 derived from multiplication of the baseline for HT prevalence in 1991 by the relative risk, and addition of the baseline SBP/DBP in 1991 to the period increase]