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Table 1 Hypertension prevalence by sex, Samoa, 1991–2013^

From: Continued increases in blood pressure over two decades in Samoa (1991–2013); around one-third of the increase explained by rising obesity levels

Year N HT (%) Systolic BP Diastolic BP
Men
 1991a 691 16.4 (13.6–19.1) 121.7 (120.5–123.0) 74.1 (73.2–74.9)
 1991b 347 22.2 (17.2–27.2)
 1995 256 29.7 (23.0–36.4)
 2002 1197 22.4 (20.1–24.8) 129.8 (128.9–130.7) 75.3 (74.6–76.1)
 2003 316 30.8 (25.8–35.9) 126.6 (124.8–128.5) 84.0 (82.6–85.3)
 2010 1390 28.8 (26.4–31.2) 130.4 (129.6–131.2) 80.6 (80.0–81.3)
 2013 581 33.9 (30.0–37.7) 132.2 (130.8–133.6) 78.2 (77.2–79.2)
5-yr change + 2.78* (2.47–2.95) + 2.13* (1.79–2.46) + 1.44* (1.17–1.70)
Women
 1991a 833 14.0 (11.6–16.4) 118.4 (117.3–119.6) 72.8 (72.1–73.6)
 1991b 384 15.1 (11.1–19.1)
 1995 275 14.8 (9.56–18.0)
 2002 1346 19.3 (17.2–21.4) 121.4 (120.3–122.4) 74.2 (73.5–74.9)
 2003 367 25.6 (21.1–30.0) 122.0 (120.1–123.8) 81.5 (80.3–82.7)
 2010 2031 25.5 (23.4–27.2) 123.0 (122.2–123.8) 80.6 (80.0–81.1)
 2013 867 26.4 (23.4–29.3) 126.4 (125.0–127.7) 78.3 (77.4–79.1)
5-yr change + 2.99* (2.86–3.79) + 1.49* (1.15–1.84) + 1.79* (1.56–2.02)
  1. 1991a (NCDRF survey); 1991b (SACRF survey); *p < 0.001; 95% confidence intervals in brackets after the estimate; BP (blood pressure); HT (hypertension = systolic BP ≥140 and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg and/or taking medication for HT); N (number of participants in stratum); ^ data adjusted to the most recent previous census for age group and Division of residency by sex to improve representativeness; 5-yr change (represents the change in each 5 year period from meta-regression for HT and linear regression for BP means); mean BP not available for 1991b and 1995 surveys because of exclusions (see methods)