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Table 3 Effect of intervention on blood lipids and insulin resistance (ITT)

From: Effects of alternate day calorie restriction and exercise on cardio-metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese adults: an exploratory randomized controlled study

Variables Group Baseline Week 8 Change p-value
Insulin (μIU/ml) E-ADCR (n = 12) 9.4 ± 3.6 6.5 ± 3.0b − 2.9 ± 4.1 0.205
ADCR (n = 13) 9.3 ± 4.1 11.8 ± 12.9 2.6 ± 11.5
Exercise (n = 10) 7.5 ± 3.6 7.6 ± 3.5 0.1 ± 3.5
Control (n = 10) 8.5 ± 6.2 11.0 ± 7.7 2.6 ± 4.0
Glucose (mg/dl) E-ADCR (n = 12) 98.0 ± 17.0 87.08 ± 12.70b −10.9 ± 16.9 0.110
ADCR (n = 13) 90.0 ± 9.5 87.0 ± 8.1 −3.0 ± 9.4
Exercise (n = 10) 93.0 ± 8.0 92.3 ± 7.2 −0.7 ± 8.3
Control (n = 10) 87.0 ± 5.4 86.0 ± 5.7 − 1.0 ± 5.0
HOMA-IR E-ADCR (n = 12) 2.4 ± 1.4 1.4 ± 0.8b − 0.9 ± 1.3 0.132
ADCR (n = 13) 2.1 ± 1.0 2.7 ± 3.3 0.6 ± 2.8
Exercise (n = 10) 1.7 ± 0.9 1.8 ± 0.9 0.0 ± 0.8
Control (n = 10) 1.8 ± 1.4 2.4 ± 1.7 0.5 ± 0.9
TG (mg/dl) E-ADCR (n = 12) 133.4 ± 47.1 89.7 ± 33.7a − 43.8 ± 41.9c, d 0.004
ADCR (n = 13) 108.8 ± 48.7 120.8 ± 80.6 12.0 ± 56.2
Exercise (n = 10) 142.7 ± 78.3 106.9 ± 42.7 − 35.8 ± 55.8
Control (n = 10) 109.5 ± 86.8 130.7 ± 86.8 21.2 ± 31.0
TC (mg/dl) E-ADCR (n = 12) 182.8 ± 26.0 197.1 ± 28.6 14.3 ± 22.9 0.475
ADCR (n = 13) 189.9 ± 23.91 193.9 ± 21.6 4.1 ± 19.6
Exercise (n = 10) 177.8 ± 33.4 191.9 ± 36.4 14.1 ± 25.3
Control (n = 10) 178.5 ± 38.0 194.8 ± 37.4a 16.3 ± 13.6
HDL-C (mg/dl) E-ADCR (n = 12) 48.0 ± 10.4 53.3 ± 10.5b 5.3 ± 8.1 0.622
ADCR (n = 13) 58.5 ± 15.0 61.1 ± 15.4 2.6 ± 8.3
Exercise (n = 10) 44.8 ± 10.0 51.5 ± 8.6b 6.7 ± 8.5
Control (n = 10) 54.6 ± 11.8 59.4 ± 12.4b 4.9 ± 4.7
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD
  2. E-ADCR Exercise plus alternate day calorie restriction, ADCR Alternate day calorie restriction, BMI Body mass index, WC Waist circumference, SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, HR Heart rate, HOMA-IR Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, TG Triglycerides, TC Total cholesterol, HDL-C High-density lipoprotein cholesterol
  3. aSignificantly different between baseline and week 8, p < 0.01
  4. bSignificantly different between baseline and week 8, p < 0.05
  5. cSignificantly different with the control group, p < 0.05
  6. dSignificantly different with the ADCR group, p < 0.05; p values were obtained by One-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc analysis