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Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of participants (N = 235; 84 males and 151 females)

From: Character strengths as protective factors against depression and suicidality among male and female employees

Variables Total   Female Male Statistics
Mean (SD), N (%) Range Mean (SD), N (%) Mean (SD), N (%) t/x2, p
Age, year 32.5 (6.5) 19–50 32.5 (6.8) 32.4 (5.9) .120, .905
Years of education 10.8 (5.7) 9–18 11.0 (5.6) 10.6 (5.8) .458, .647
Family income (1 to 7)1 4.9 (1.5) 1–7 5.0 (1.5) 4.6 (1.4) 2.196, .029*
Job grade (low)2 227 (96.5%) 147 (93.4%) 80 (95.2%) .733, .392
BDI-II score 13.3 (10.0) 0–43 14.9 (10.3) 10.5 (8.9) 3.339, .001**
“Having depressive mood” group3 101 (43.0%) 76 (50.3%) 25 (29.8%) 9.318, .002**
K-MINI score 1.5 (3.2) 0–23 1.6 (3.3) 1.2 (3.0) .933, .352
“Having suicidality” group4 50 (21.3%) 35 (23.2%) 15 (17.9%) .913, .339
VIA-72 scores
 Creativity 3.0 (.9) 1.0–5.0 3.1 (.9) 2.8 (.8) 2.912, .004**
 Curiosity 3.0 (.9) 1.0–5.0 3.0 (.9) 2.9 (.8) 1.620, .107
 Judgment 2.6 (.7) 1.0–4.7 2.7 (.6) 2.5 (.7) 2.601, .010*
 Love of learning 3.5 (.9) 1.0–5.0 3.5 (.9) 3.4 (.9) .733, .464
 Perspective 2.8 (.7) 1.0–5.0 2.8 (.8) 2.7 (.7) .719, .473
 Love 2.3 (.8) 1.0–5.0 2.4 (.8) 2.3 (.8) .706, .481
 Kindness 2.4 (.6) 1.0–4.7 2.4 (.6) 2.4 (.6) .869, .386
 Social intelligence 2.6 (.6) 1.0–4.7 2.6 (.6) 2.4 (.6) 2.046, .042*
 Teamwork 2.4 (.6) 1.0–4.0 2.5 (.6) 2.4 (.6) 1.056, .292
 Fairness 2.3 (.6) 1.0–4.0 2.3 (.6) 2.3 (.7) .123, .903
 Leadership 2.6 (.7) 1.0–4.3 2.6 (.7) 2.5 (.6) 1.494, .137
  1. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001. BDI-II, Beck Depression Inventory-II; K-MINI, Korean version of the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview suicidality module; VIA-72, 24 Character Strength Alphas Values in Action Survey-72
  2. 11 to 7: below $1000 to above $6000 per month
  3. 2Low: staff, high: assistant manager/manager/deputy general manager
  4. 3“Having depressive mood” group: BDI-II ≥13
  5. 4“Having suicidality” group: K-MINI ≥4