Skip to main content

Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of participants (n = 1684)

From: Self-diagnosed depression in the Norwegian general population – associations with neuroticism, extraversion, optimism, and general self-efficacy

Characteristics Total (n = 1684) Men (n = 787) Women (n = 897) p d
Age group n (%) n (%) n (%)   
 18–30 203 (12.1) 70 (8.9) 133 (14.8) <  0.001  
 31–40 182 (10.8) 67 (8.5) 115 (12.8)   
 41–50 345 (20.5) 145 (18.4) 200 (22.3)   
 51–60 340 (20.2) 167 (21.2) 173 (19.3)   
 61–70 374 (22.2) 206 (26.2) 168 (18.7)   
 71 or above 240 (14.3) 132 (16.8) 108 (12.0)   
Education
 12 years or less 761 (45.2) 368 (46.8) 393 (43.8) 0.23  
 More than 12 years 923 (54.8) 419 (53.2) 504 (56.2)   
Employment
 Working/in education 1127 (66.9) 503 (63.9) 624 (69.6) 0.01  
 Not working/in education 557 (33.1) 284 (36.1) 273 (30.4)   
Depression
 Current self-diagnosed depression 136 (8.1) 48 (6.1) 88 (9.8) 0.005  
 Lifetime self-diagnosed depression 487 (28.9) 185 (23.5) 302 (33.7) <  0.001  
Psychological factors M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)   
 General self-efficacy 2.91 (0.6) 2.97 (0.6) 2.85 (0.6) <  0.001 0.20
 Optimism 2.89 (0.5) 2.88 (0.5) 2.89 (0.5) 0.69 0.02
 Extraversion 3.9 (1.8) 3.6 (1.8) 4.1 (1.8) <  0.001 0.28
 Neuroticism 1.9 (1.9) 1.5 (1.7) 2.2 (1.9) <  0.001 0.49
  1. Statistical tests are χ2-tests for categorical variables and independent t-tests for continuous variables. Effect sizes are calculated as Cohen’s d