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Table 5 Overview of determinants of retirement timing according to countries from articles with hypotheses

From: Domains and determinants of retirement timing: A systematic review of longitudinal studies

  The Netherlands Denmark Sweden Germany France UK Europe USA Australia
Demographic factors
 Education (high vs low) [21, 22]    [21]   [21]   [23]  
 Gender (female) [21]    [21]   [21]    
Health
 Having a disease (y/n)   [24]    [26]   [20]   [29]
 # days of treatment   [24]        
 # of admissions   [24]        
General health
 Poor health [21, 27, 28, 32] [26]   [21]   [21] [31]   
 Subjective life expectancy [7]         
 Health limitations     [30]   [30]    
 Latent health     [30]   [30]    
Lifestyle
 Overweight; obese vs normal        [31]   
 Physical activity (low vs high)        [31]   
 (ex-)smoker vs non-smoker        [31]   
 Excessive alcohol intake (y/n)        [31]   
Social factors
 Partner employed (y/n) [21]    [21]   [21]    
Social participation
 Providing care (y/n)        [20]   
 Member of a club (y/n)        [20]   
 Following general or higher education (y/n)        [20]   
 Following vocational or training course (y/n)        [20]   
 Satisfaction with leisure time (y/n)        [20]   
Work characteristics
 Working fulltime [22]       [20]   
 Hourly wage [21]    [21]   [21]    
 Tenure before age of 50 years [21]    [21]   [21]    
 Sector of work [22, 27]         
 Occupational class (lower vs upper) [22]         
 Irregular work (y/n) [34]         
 Larger firm size [22]         
Job demands
 Physically demanding job [34]       [31]   
 High time pressure [34]       [31]   
 Job satisfaction (low vs high)        [20]   
 Low job control        [31]   
 Low rewards        [31]   
 Challenge at work [34]         
Contextual factors
 Firm specific training         [33]  
 Child to teacher ratio in day-care sector   [25]        
 Training opportunities [34]         
 Place to work/ time flexibility [34]         
 Use of seniority scheme [34]         
 Opportunities to grow [34]         
 Retirement behaviour among colleagues [34]         
 Support supervisor prolonged work participation [34]         
Financial factors
 Higher personal income        [20]   
 Social security wealth         [35]  
Health insurance coverage
Employer provided and RHB; non-employer; none vs employer provided but no RHB
        [36]  
 Replacement rate (% of income a worker receives when ER, DP, unemployed) [28]         
Retirement factors
 Retirement preferences: earlier vs later    [37]       
Macro effects
 Policy change (RET/FRA) (y/n)         [12]  
Birth cohort (related to pension regime) (≥1946=reference)
 ≤1939 [22]         
 1940-45 [22]         
 Calendar time effects [28]         
  1. Abbreviations: DP disability pension, ER early retirement, FRA full retirement age, RET retirement earnings test, RHB retiree health benefits