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Table 5 Hierarchical liner modeling of the relationship of health literacy and diabetes-specific health knowledge with adherence behavior

From: Disease-specific health literacy, disease knowledge, and adherence behavior among patients with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan

Independent Dependent Health Literacy a Diabetes-Specific Health Knowledgeb Adherence Behavior
Model 1c Model 2d
β coefficient β coefficient β coefficient β coefficient
Age −0.01* −0.01 0.08*** 0.08***
Gender (Female)
 Male −0.02 0.12 −0.75** −0.83**
Educational Attainment (Primary school or less)
 Junior High 0.25 0.68*** 0.03 0.28
 Senior High 0.18 0.41* 1.13** 1.43**
 College Or Higher 0.20 0.35 1.84*** 2.01***
Residential Area (Northern)
 Central 0.28* −0.12 2.43*** 2.20***
 Southern −0.46*** 0.20 0.15 −0.09
 Eastern & Outer Islands 0.14 −0.37 0.21 0.79
Patient Caregiver (Self)
 Others 0.20 0.23 −0.46 −0.34
 Self + Others 0.50*** 0.44*** 0.65* 0.57
Specialty Visited (Others)
 Endocrinology & Metabolism −0.09 −0.28 0.13*** 1.22***
Insulin Use (No)
 Yes −0.16 0.03 −0.02 − 0.21
【Health Literacy】
 Functional Literacy     0.07
 Communicative Literacy     −0.40
 Critical Literacy     −0.21
【Diabetes Knowledge】
 Healthy Diet     −0.22
 Exercise     −4.03*
 Glycemic Monitoring     0.39
 Problem Solving     0.26
 Risks Reduction     0.11
 Healthy Coping     −0.004
Random Effect
 Variance of Health Care Facility Level (Residual) 0.014(0.020) 0.211(0.185) 0.182(0.223) 0.135(0.194)
 Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) 0.008 0.055 0.011 0.008
p Value 0.234 0.128 0.207 0.243
  1. This table reports standardized beta coefficients
  2. Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) = Variance of health care facility level /(Variance of health care facility level + residual)
  3. Regression equations:
  4. ahealth literacy = demographic variables
  5. bdisease-specific health knowledge = demographic variables
  6. cadherence behavior model 1: adherence behavior = demographic variables
  7. dadherence behavior model 2: adherence behavior = demographic variables + health literacy + disease-specific knowledge
  8. * p < 0.05,** p < 0.01,*** p < 0.001