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Table 2 Health literacy and diabetes-specific health knowledge by demographics and health factors (N = 1059)

From: Disease-specific health literacy, disease knowledge, and adherence behavior among patients with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan

   Health Literacy (0~ 11) Diabetes-Specific Health Knowledge (0~ 20)
N(%) FUN COM CRI DIET EXER MONI SOLV RISK COPING
Range (0–2) (0–4) (0–5) (0–5) (0–1) (0–2) (0–1) (0–5) (0–6)
Age (years)
 20–29 14(1.3) 1.86(0.36) 4.00(0.00) 4.14(0.53) 3.86(0.36) 1.00(0.00) 1.29(0.83) 1.00(0.00) 4.79(0.58) 5.14(0.66)
 30–39 53(5.0) 1.64(0.56) 3.89(0.38) 3.98(0.75) 3.77(0.72) 1.00(0.00) 1.45(0.54) 1.00(0.00) 4.55(0.89) 5.26(0.88)
 40–49 172(16.3) 1.72(0.52) 3.66(0.60) 4.08(0.84) 3.83(0.72) 0.99(0.08) 1.24(0.51) 0.99(0.08) 4.53(0.69) 5.31(0.84)
 50–59 392(37.1) 1.70(0.54) 3.70(0.62) 4.14(0.82) 3.93(0.70) 0.99(0.09) 1.27(0.54) 0.96(0.19) 4.63(0.69) 5.11(0.93)
 Over 60 426(40.3) 1.60(0.59) 3.66(0.66) 4.00(0.86) 3.81(0.79) 0.99(0.12) 1.24(0.50) 0.97(0.18) 4.54(0.72) 5.08(0.94)
p-value   0.010* 0.005** 0.126 0.032* 0.455 0.250 0.153 0.366 0.005**
HbA1C (%)
 Under 7.0 407(38.4) 1.70(0.52) 3.72(0.64) 3.99(0.80) 3.84(0.69) 0.99(0.70) 1.31(0.53) 0.98(0.14) 4.57(0.72) 5.21(0.86)
 Over 7.1 652(61.6) 1.65(0.58) 3.68(0.60) 4.12(0.84) 3.87(0.77) 0.99(0.11) 1.23(0.52) 0.97(0.18) 4.57(0.71) 5.10(0.95)
p-value   0.159 0.327 0.016* 0.483 0.184 0.016* 0.154 0.922 0.042*
Gender
 Male 539(50.9) 1.64(0.56) 3.67(0.64) 4.12(0.83) 3.88(0.75) 0.99(0.10) 1.27(0.52) 0.97(1.70) 4.61(0.73) 5.17(0.89)
 Female 520(49.1) 1.69(0.55) 3.72(0.58) 4.02(0.83) 3.83(0.73) 0.99(0.10) 1.25(0.53) 0.97(1.62) 4.53(0.69) 5.10(0.95)
p-value   0.087 0.250 0.051 0.307 0.972 0.295 0.753 0.062 0.133
Educational Attainment
 Primary School or Lower 251(23.7) 1.63(0.59) 3.57(0.72) 4.02(0.84) 3.72(0.87) 0.99(0.12) 1.23(0.49) 0.97(0.18) 4.43(0.81) 4.85(1.05)
 Junior high 185(17.5) 1.65(0.58) 3.76(0.54) 4.13(0.81) 4.06(0.69) 0.99(0.07) 1.36(0.53) 0.97(0.17) 4.59(0.75) 5.26(0.86)
 Senior high 364(34.4) 1.68(0.54) 3.70(0.66) 4.11(0.83) 3.88(0.67) 0.99(0.10) 1.22(0.51) 0.99(0.12) 4.62(0.63) 5.16(0.96)
 College or Higher 259(24.5) 1.69(0.53) 3.72(0.54) 3.98(0.84) 3.76(0.76) 0.99(0.11) 1.26(0.55) 0.96(0.19) 4.59(0.72) 5.25(0.84)
p-value   0.523 0.018* 0.124 <.001*** 0.810 0.017* 0.290 0.007** <.001***
Patient Caregiver
 Self 611(57.7) 1.62(0.59) 3.66(0.64) 3.98(0.85) 3.80(0.75) 0.99(0.08) 1.20(0.50) 0.97(0.17) 4.55(0.72) 5.12(0.91)
 Others 98(9.3) 1.64(0.57) 3.59(0.80) 4.11(0.83) 3.78(0.81) 0.98(0.13) 1.18(0.47) 0.96(0.19) 4.63(0.65) 5.07(1.14)
 Self + Others 350(33.1) 1.77(0.47) 3.79(0.52) 4.19(0.79) 3.92(0.75) 0.98(0.13) 1.37(0.55) 0.98(0.14) 4.56(0.75) 5.14(0.97)
p-value   <.001*** 0.006** 0.001** 0.046* 0.381 <.001*** 0.475 0.533 0.815
Specialty Visited
 Endocrinology & Metabolism 654(61.9) 1.64(0.58) 3.70(0.61) 4.05(0.83) 3.80(0.78) 0.99(0.10) 1.29(0.55) 0.97(0.17) 4.58(0.71) 5.12(0.92)
 Others 402(38.1) 1.72(0.51) 3.68(0.63) 4.11(0.82) 3.95(0.65) 0.99(0.09) 1.21(0.48) 0.97(0.16) 4.56(0.72) 5.16(0.92)
p-value   0.033* 0.551 0.238 0.001** 0.598 0.007** 0.873 0.598 0.451
Insulin Use
 Yes 160(15.1) 1.56(0.60) 3.71(0.63) 3.99(0.79) 3.82(0.79) 0.99(0.11) 1.35(0.50) 0.95(0.22) 4.58(0.76) 5.14(0.91)
 No 899(84.9) 1.69(0.55) 3.69(0.61) 4.09(0.73) 3.86(0.73) 0.99(0.09) 1.25(0.53) 0.98(0.15) 4.57(0.70) 5.14(0.92)
p-value   0.016* 0.745 0.183 0.494 0.665 0.022* 0.159 0.862 0.982
Health Care Facility Accreditation Level
 Medical Center 232(21.9) 1.56(0.62) 3.69(0.63) 3.90(0.87) 3.59(0.80) 0.99(0.09) 1.30(0.55) 0.96(0.19) 4.47(0.88) 5.20(0.83)
 Regional Hospital 314(29.7) 1.67(0.57) 3.73(0.62) 4.13(0.86) 4.02(0.67) 0.99(0.08) 1.31(0.53) 0.98(0.14) 4.74(0.49) 5.29(0.83)
 District Hospital 165(15.6) 1.68(0.55) 3.71(0.53) 4.04(0.71) 3.76(0.80) 0.98(0.13) 1.24(0.58) 0.96(0.19) 4.55(0.63) 4.64(1.11)
 Community Clinic 348(32.9) 1.74(0.49) 3.66(0.64) 4.14(0.81) 3.93(0.67) 0.99(0.09) 1.21(0.46) 0.97(0.16) 4.50(0.77) 5.19(0.88)
p-value   0.004** 0.586 0.006** <.001*** 0.637 0.073 0.536 <.001*** <.001***
Residential Region
 Northern 466(44.0) 1.67(0.57) 3.67(0.65) 4.16(0.89) 3.89(0.82) 0.99(0.08) 1.21(0.54) 0.97(0.16) 4.58(0.73) 5.14(0.98)
 Central 251(23.7) 1.78(0.47) 3.83(0.42) 4.20(0.76) 3.83(0.59) 0.98(0.14) 1.27(0.45) 0.96(0.19) 4.53(0.67) 5.04(0.90)
 Southern 299(28.2) 1.56(0.58) 3.62(0.67) 3.85(0.75) 3.84(0.71) 1.00(0.06) 1.32(0.54) 0.97(0.16) 4.62(0.71) 5.27(0.82)
 Eastern & Outlying Islands 43(4.1) 1.91(0.29) 3.83(0.49) 3.91(0.61) 3.67(0.78) 0.98(0.15) 1.37(0.58) 1.00(0.00) 4.47(0.77) 4.72(0.93)
p-value   <.001*** <.001*** <.001*** 0.222 0.319 0.017* 0.616. 0.321 <.001***
  1. FUN functional literacy, COM communicative literacy, CRI critical literacy, DIET healthy diet, EXER exercise, MONI glycemic monitoring, SOLV problem solving, RISK risk reduction, COPING healthy coping
  2. * p < 0.05,** p < 0.01,*** p < 0.001