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Table 5 Association of workplace social capital and self-rated health and psychological distress (GHQ-12)

From: Investigation into the metric properties of the workplace social capital questionnaire and its association with self-rated health and psychological distress amongst Greek-Cypriot registered nurses: cross-sectional descriptive study

  Self-rated health - VAS 0–100 (N = 280) Psychological distress – GHQ-12 ≥ 4 (N = 283)
Unadjusted Mean Adjusted Mean Mean Difference (95% CI) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
WSC – Overall scale
 Lowest (< 3.5) 73.9 75.3 −8.4 (−14.0, −2.8) 2.16 (1.05, 4.42) 1.93 (0.88, 4.25)
 Middle (3.5–4.0) 77.0 78.1 −5.6 (−10.9, −0.2) 1.03 (0.49, 2.12) 1.04 (0.47, 2.32)
 Highest (> 4.0) 82.6 83.6 Ref Ref Ref
Per tertile increase (95% CI) 4.2 (1.5, 6.9), p < 0.01 4.1 (1.3, 6.8), p < 0.01   0.64 (0.45, 0.92) 0.68 (0.46, 1.01)
Per 1 SD increase (95% CI) 3.0 (1.0, 5.1), p < 0.01 3.2 (1.1, 5.3), p < 0.01   0.72 (0.55, 0.93) 0.76 (0.57, 1.01)
Bonding SC
 Lowest (< 3.5) 74.6 75.4 −8.0 (−13.8, −2.1) 2.94 (1.26, 6.89) 2.71 (1.08, 6.79)
 Middle (3.5–4.0) 76.9 77.6 −5.7 (−11.3, −0.0) 2.39 (1.03, 5.58) 2.69 (1.07, 6.77)
 Highest (> 4.0) 82.6 83.3 Ref Ref Ref
Per category increase (95% CI) 3.7 (0.9, 6.6), p = 0.01 3.7 (0.9, 6.6), p = 0.01   0.64 (0.44, 0.93) 0.69 (0.47, 1.03)
Per 1 SD increase (95% CI) 2.9 (0.9, 5.0), p < 0.01 2.8 (0.8, 4.9), p = 0.01   0.78 (0.60, 1.00) 0.83 (0.63, 1.10)
Bridging SC
 Lowest (< 3.5) 76.2 76.9 −2.1 (−9.2, 5.0) 0.97 (0.41, 2.29) 0.87 (0.34, 2.24)
 Middle (3.5–4.0) 78.3 79.5 0.5 (−6.9, 7.9) 0.71 (0.29, 1.78) 0.64 (0.23, 1.77)
 Highest (> 4.0) 78.2 79.0 Ref Ref Ref
Per category increase (95% CI) 1.4 (−1.7, 4.5), p = 0.39 1.6 (−1.5, 4.7), p = 0.31   0.91 (0.62, 1.34) 0.94 (0.62, 1.43)
Per 1 SD increase (95% CI) 1.4 (−0.7, 3.5), p = 0.20 1.6 (−0.5, 3.8), p = 0.13   0.77 (0.60, 1.00) 0.82 (0.62,1.08)
Linking SC
 Lowest (< 3.5) 74.0 75.0 −9.8 (−15.1, −4.6) 2.07 (1.05, 4.11) 1.90 (0.89, 4.07)
 Middle (3.5–4.0) 76.3 77.1 −7.7 (−13.2, −2.2) 0.97 (0.46, 2.04) 1.05 (0.56, 2.43)
 Highest (> 4.0) 84.2 84.8 Ref Ref Ref
Per category increase (95% CI) 4.8 (2.3, 7.4), p < 0.01 4.6 (2.0, 7.2), p < 0.01   0.65 (0.56, 0.92) 0.70 (0.48, 1.01)
Per SD increase (95% CI) 2.9 (0.8, 5.0), p < 0.01 3.1 (0.9, 5.2), p < 0.01   0.73 (0.56, 0.95) 0.75 (0.56, 1.00)
  1. †‡Adjusted for age, gender, income, marital status, number of children, length of employment, change of address in last ten years, house and type of tenure. Increasing age, female gender and lower income were statistically significantly associated with lower self-rated health in multivariable models. Female gender, lower income and not owner occupants had statistically significantly higher odds of GHQ-12 ≥ 4 in multivariable models