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Table 3 Multinomial logistic regression for child overweight including obesity (A), and thinness (B), compared to normal weighted at age 4–5 years

From: Contrasting patterns of overweight and thinness among preschool children of different ethnic groups in Norway, and relations with maternal and early life factors

Candidate factors A. Overweight B. Thinness
Unadjusted OR Final model Unadjusted OR Final model
OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value
Ethnic origin             
Europe (reference)             
South Asia, unadjusted 0.46 0.21–1.0 0.53 0.55 0.24–1.27 0.2 2.79 0.74–4.7 < 0.001 2.20 1.25–3.87 0.006
Middle East/North Africa 2.04 1.16–3.57 0.01 1.98 1.08–3.63 0.03 0.29 0.74–20.8 0.3 1.27 0.63–2.57 0.5
Age 0.96 0.91–1.02 0.2 0.93 0.88–0.99 0.02 0.97 0.92–1.02 0.2 1.00 0.94–1.05 0.9
Prepregnant BMI, categorized
 Normal weight (reference)             
 Underweight 0.44 0.06–3.40 0.4 0.45 0.06–3.72 0.5 1.80 0.82–4.0 0.1 1.89 0.81–4.43 0.1
 Overweight including obesity 3.01 1.78–5.09 < 0.001 2.65 1.52–4.61 0.001 0.47 0.27–0.83 0.009 0.50 0.28–0.90 0.02
Parity
 Para 0 (reference)             
 Para 1 or more 1.11 0.68–1.83 0.7     0.91 0.58–1.42 0.7    
Education
 University/college (reference)             
 High School/Upper secondary school 1.58 0.90–1.79 0.1     1.24 0.76–2.05 0.4    
 Primary school or less 2.00 1.04–4.00 0.04     1.26 0.66–2.41 0.5    
Prepregnant regular physical activitya
 Yes (reference)             
 No 1.67 0.93–3.02 0.09     1.26 0.76–1.08 0.4    
Gestational diabetes mellitusb
 No (reference)             
 Yes 1.69 1.01–2.84 0.047     1.09 0.67–1.78 0.7    
Cluster healthy/non-Healthy nutritionc
 Healthy (reference)             
 Non-healthy 0.76 0.35–1.66 0.5     1.88 1.07–3.28 0.03    
Sex, child
 Male (reference)             
 Female 1.52 0.92–2.52 0.1 1.73 0.99–3.01 0.05 0.74 0.47–1.16 0.2    
Birth weight (per 100 g) 1.12 1.07–1.18 < 0.001 1.11 1.05–1.18 < 0.001 0.93 0.90–0.97 0.001 0.96 0.92–1.01 0.1
Breast-feeding 3 months postpartum
 Yes (reference)             
 No 1.58 0.79–3.18 0.2     1.07 0.52–2.17 0.9    
  1. a Self-reported, based on validated questionnaire
  2. b Defined by WHO 2013 criteria; fasting glucose ≥5.1 mmol/l and/or 2-h plasma glucose ≥8.5 mmol/l
  3. cCollected by food frequency questionnaire in week 28 of pregnancy, and defined by cluster analysis on 55 variables of intake