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Table 2 Evaluation of electronic cigarettes effectiveness

From: Effectiveness and safety of electronic cigarettes among sole and dual user vapers in Kuantan and Pekan, Malaysia: a six-month observational study

Conventional cigarette (CCs) Consumption and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) Level at baseline
Characteristics Dual users n = 146 Sole EC users n = 69 Statistic P value (2-tailed)
 CC/day before using EC 20 (10–60) 20 (5–40) U = 4412.000 0.055
 CC/day at baseline visit 1 5 (1–30) Z = −9.281 < 0.001
 Exhale Carbon Monoxide (CO) 8 (8–40) 3 (1–6) U = 1577.500 < 0.001
Conventional cigarettes consumption and CO level at week 24
Characteristics Dual users n = 127 Sole EC users n = 62 Statistic P value (2-tailed)
 CC/day at baseline vs week 24 5 (1–30) Z = −1.710 0.087
 CC/day at week 24 6 (0–40) 0 (0–20) U = 1842.00 < 0.001
 CO at week 24 8 (2–20) 3 (2–11) U = 1650.50 < 0.001
Evaluation of Electronic cigarettes effectiveness by the seven-day prevalence abstinence rate at week 24 (Intention To Treat (ITT) analysis)
At Week 24 % (n) OR (95% CI) P value (2-tailed)
Quit only CCs
 Both users 20.5% (44 of 215)   
 Sole EC users 42% (29 of 69) 6.33 (4.09- < 0.001
 Dual user 10.3% (15 of 146) 0.646)  
Quit both ECs and CCs
 Both users 3.3% (7 of 215) 5.62 (5.29- 0.036
 Sole EC users 7.2% (5 of 69) 0.940)  
 Dual users 1.4% (2 of 146)   
  1. Odd ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (95% CI)
  2. CCs conventional cigarettes, CO carbon monoxide
  3. Non-parametric data were expressed as medians, and p values were calculated by the Mann-Whitney U test between both groups