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Table 2 Measures of walkability: tools, indices and questionnaires and stair assessment

From: Examining the relationships between walkability and physical activity among older persons: what about stairs?

Name/Type of walkability tool, index, or questionnaire (N = 15) Assesses Geographic Terrain Assesses Stairs Number of Articles Using This Measure (%)
Audit of Physical Activity Resources for Seniors (APARS) Yes Yes 1 (0.5%)
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Yes1 No 110 (53.7%)
International Physical Activity Questionnaire Environmental Module (IPAQ-E) No No 5 (2.4%)
Neighborhood Brief Observation Tool No No 1 (0.5%)
Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS; all versions) Yes No 51 (24.9%)
Neighborhood Open Space (NOS) No No 3 (1.5%)
Neighborhood Resident Survey No No 1 (0.5%)
Neighborhood Walking Questionnaire for Chinese Seniors (NWQ-CS) Yes No 4 (2.0%)
New Urbanism Index No No 1 (0.5%)
Older Peoples Active Living (OPAL) questionnaire Unknown Unknown 3 (1.5%)
Self-created items or indices on walkability Yesa Yesa 45 (22.0%)
(Street Smart) Walk Score No No 5 (2.4%)
Systematic Pedestrian and Cycling Environment Scan (SPACES) Yes No 1 (0.5%)
University of Miami Built Environment Coding System (UMBECS) No No 1 (0.5%)
Zhongshan Household Travel Survey (ZHTS) Unknown Unknown 1 (0.5%)
Total 6 1b 205 (100%)c
  1. aRefers to a broader set of walkability measures and thus some collect information on geographic terrain while others do not
  2. bAPARS is the only walkability tool that that includes questions on stairs. However, in four other articles there were questions about stairs as survey items in their studies about walkability
  3. cSince some studies used more than one type of walkability measure, the numbers and percentages add up to more than 205 and 100% respectively