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Table 4 Contributions of the explanatory factors to educational inequalities in cause-specific mortality for lowest educated men and women

From: What’s the difference? A gender perspective on understanding educational inequalities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality

Models Men Women
Level of education Change in educational inequality Level of education Change in educational inequality
Lowest High Absolute declinec Percentage declinec Lowest High Absolute declinec Percentage declinec
HRa (95% CI)b Ref. HRa (95% CI)b Ref.
Mortality from cardiovascular diseased
 0. No additional controls 1.58 (1.23, 2.04) 1    2.08 (1.26, 3.44) 1   
 1. Material 1.25 (0.91, 1.71) 1 0.33 57% 2.13 (1.27, 3.57) 1 −0.05 −5%
 2. Employment-related 1.17 (0.84, 1.62) 1 0.41 71% 1.90 (1.11, 3.24) 1 0.18 17%
 3. Behavioural 1.39 (1.06, 1.81) 1 0.19 33% 1.87 (1.11, 3.16) 1 0.21 19%
 4. Family-related 1.57 (1.21, 2.03) 1 0.01 2% 2.02 (1.22, 3.32) 1 0.06 6%
 5. All factors 1.07 (0.75, 1.52) 1 0.51 88% 1.95 (1.11, 3.41) 1 0.13 12%
Cancer mortalitye
 0. No additional controls 1.50 (1.20, 1.89) 1    1.33 (0.91, 1.95) 1   
 1. Material 1.26 (0.96, 1.66) 1 0.24 48% 1.04 (0.70, 1.55) 1 0.29 88%
 2. Employment-related 1.52 (1.14, 2.04) 1 −0.02 −4% 1.14 (0.75, 1.73) 1 0.19 58%
 3. Behavioural 1.33 (1.05, 1.69) 1 0.17 34% 1.21 (0.82, 1.79) 1 0.12 36%
 4. Family-related 1.50 (1.19, 1.88) 1 0.00 0% 1.38 (0.94, 2.04) 1 −0.05 −15%
 5. All factors 1.36 (1.00, 1.86) 1 0.14 28% 0.96 (0.61, 1.49) 1 0.37 112%
Mortality from other diseasesf
 0. No additional controls 1.31 (0.99, 1.74) 1    1.43 (0.94, 2.19) 1   
 1. Material 1.02 (0.73, 1.43) 1 0.29 94% 1.18 (0.77, 1.82) 1 0.25 58%
 2. Employment-related 1.27 (0.89, 1.81) 1 0.04 13% 1.30 (0.83, 2.05) 1 0.13 30%
 3. Behavioural 1.13 (0.83, 1.53) 1 0.18 58% 1.16 (0.75, 1.80) 1 0.27 63%
 4. Family-related 1.28 (0.96, 1.71) 1 0.03 10% 1.48 (0.96, 2.27) 1 −0.05 −12%
 5. All factors 1.03 (0.70, 1.51) 1 0.28 90% 1.06 (0.66, 1.72) 1 0.37 86%
Mortality from external causesg
 0. No additional controls 0.95 (0.39, 2.32) 1    2.05 (0.48, 8.77) 1   
 1. Material 1.17 (0.38, 3.63) 1 −0.22 − 440% 1.66 (0.35, 8.00) 1 0.39 37%
 2. Employment-related 1.21 (0.32, 4.54) 1 −0.26 − 520% 1.27 (0.30, 5.45) 1 0.78 74%
 3. Behavioural 1.04 (0.41, 2.61) 1 −0.09 −180% 2.27 (0.51, 10.04) 1 −0.22 −21%
 4. Family-related 0.98 (0.39, 2.44) 1 −0.03 −60% 2.20 (0.50, 9.65) 1 −0.15 −14%
 5. All factors 1.42 (0.37, 5.42) 1 −0.47 − 940% 1.52 (0.28, 8.22) 1 0.53 50%
  1. Notes. aHR Mortality hazard ratios. bCI Confidence interval. cNegative absolute and percentage declines indicate an increase in the educational inequality. dMortality from cardiovascular disease includes deaths with International Classification of Diseases (ICD) [36] codes between I00 and I99. eCancer mortality includes deaths with ICD codes between C00 and D48. fMortality from other diseases includes deaths with all other ICD codes than those included in cardiovascular disease, cancer or external causes. gMortality from external causes includes deaths with ICD codes between V01 and Y89