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Table 3 Contributions of the explanatory factors to educational inequalities in all-cause mortality for lowest educated men and women

From: What’s the difference? A gender perspective on understanding educational inequalities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality

Models Men Women
Level of education Change in educational inequality Level of education Change in educational inequality
Lowest High Absolute decline c Percentage decline c Lowest High Absolute declinec Percentage declinec
HRa (95% CI)b Ref.   % (95% CI)d HRa (95% CI)b Ref.   % (95% CI)d
0. No additional controls 1.58 (1.37, 1.83) 1     1.59 (1.25, 2.02) 1    
1. Material 1.18 (0.99, 1.40) 1 0.40 67% (46%, 103%) 1.29 (1.00, 1.66) 1 0.30 51% (29%, 93%)
 Financial difficulties 1.51 (1.30, 1.75) 1 0.07 12% (4%, 24%) 1.49 (1.17, 1.90) 1 0.10 17% (9%, 34%)
 Housing tenure 1.40 (1.20, 1.63) 1 0.18 31% (18%, 49%) 1.41 (1.10, 1.81) 1 0.18 31% (15%, 56%)
 Health insurance 1.27 (1.07, 1.51) 1 0.31 53% (31%, 81%) 1.40 (1.09, 1.80) 1 0.19 32% (15%, 61%)
2. Employment-related 1.42 (1.18, 1.71) 1 0.16 28% (3%, 58%) 1.39 (1.07, 1.81) 1 0.20 34% (2%, 55%)
 Employment 1.41 (1.21, 1.63) 1 0.17 29% (20%, 45%) 1.63 (1.27, 2.08) 1 −0.04 −7% (−22%, 2%)
 Occ. of the breadwinnere 1.54 (1.28, 1.85) 1 0.04 7% (−20%, 37%) 1.35 (1.04, 1.75) 1 0.24 41% (8%, 59%)
3. Behavioural factors 1.39 (1.20, 1.62) 1 0.19 33% (16%, 50%) 1.37 (1.06, 1.75) 1 0.22 37% (15%, 77%)
 Alcohol consumption 1.55 (1.34, 1.79) 1 0.03 5% (−3, 14%) 1.61 (1.26, 2.06) 1 −0.02 −3% (−20%, 10%)
 BMI 1.55 (1.34, 1.79) 1 0.03 5% (1%, 11%) 1.57 (1.23, 2.00) 1 0.02 3% (−5%, 12%)
 Smoking 1.50 (1.30, 1.73) 1 0.08 14% (3%, 26%) 1.48 (1.16, 1.89) 1 0.11 19% (4%, 41%)
 Leisure activity 1.59 (1.38, 1.84) 1 −0.01 −2% (−7%, 4%) 1.53 (1.20, 1.95) 1 0.06 10% (1%, 22%)
 Sports activity 1.49 (1.29, 1.72) 1 0.09 16% (9%, 27%) 1.49 (1.17, 1.90) 1 0.10 17% (8%, 34%)
4. Family-related factors 1.57 (1.36, 1.81) 1 0.01 2% (−7%, 11%) 1.62 (1.27, 2.07) 1 −0.03 −5% (−25%, 6%)
 Marital status 1.57 (1.36, 1.81) 1 0.01 2% (−4%, 10%) 1.61 (1.26, 2.06) 1 −0.02 −3% (−22%, 6%)
 Living arrangement 1.56 (1.35, 1.81) 1 0.02 3% (−3%, 9%) 1.58 (1.24, 2.01) 1 0.01 2% (−3%, 6%)
 Number of children 1.56 (1.35, 1.81) 1 0.02 3% (−2%, 10%) 1.65 (1.29, 2.10) 1 −0.06 −10% (−26%, −1%)
5. All factors 1.22 (1.00, 1.49) 1 0.36 62% (30%, 101%) 1.17 (0.89, 1.54) 1 0.42 71% (28%, 123%)
  1. Notes. aHR Mortality hazard ratios. bCI Confidence interval. cNegative absolute and percentage declines indicate an increase in the educational inequality. dConfidence intervals (CIs) of the percentage decline were calculated using bootstraps with 5000 repetitions; 1000 repetitions per imputed dataset. eOcc.: Occupation