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Table 2 Bivariate associations between the explanatory factors and mortality for men and women

From: What’s the difference? A gender perspective on understanding educational inequalities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality

  Men Women Testing for a gender difference in the bivariate associations (p value)c
HRa (95% CI)b HRa (95% CI)b
Material factors
 Financial difficulties
  No 1 Ref. 1 Ref.  
  Some 1.16 (1.02, 1.32) 1.28 (1.13, 1.46) 0.278
  Big 1.41 (1.06, 1.87) 1.45 (1.13, 1.88) 0.977
 Housing tenure
  Owned home 1 Ref. 1 Ref.  
  Rented home 1.28 (1.15, 1.43) 1.29 (1.16, 1.44) 0.711
 Health insurance
  Private 1 Ref. 1 Ref.  
  Public 1.34 (1.18, 1.51) 1.25 (1.11, 1.40) 0.358
Employment-related factors
 Employment
  Employed 1 Ref. 1 Ref.  
  Unemployed 1.84 (1.58, 2.14) 1.26 (0.97, 1.64) 0.012
  Retired 1.10 (0.95, 1.26) 0.90 (0.71, 1.12) 0.313
  Other 0.92 (0.47, 1.81) 0.86 (0.71, 1.05) 0.979
 Occupation of the breadwinner
  Professional 1 Ref. 1 Ref.  
  White collar 1.07 (0.91, 1.25) 1.17 (0.99, 1.38) 0.384
  Blue collar 1.03 (0.89, 1.19) 1.31 (1.13, 1.52) 0.026
  Not in the workforce 1.27 (0.87, 1.85) 1.22 (1.04, 1.44) 0.936
Behavioural factors
 Alcohol consumption
  No 1.20 (1.04, 1.38) 1.14 (1.01, 1.28) 0.617
  Light 1 Ref. 1 Ref.  
  Moderate 1.12 (0.94, 1.32) 1.11 (0.93, 1.32) 0.967
  Heavy 1.71 (1.48, 1.98) 1.60 (1.30, 1.96) 0.527
 Body mass index (BMI)
  Underweight 1.58 (1.20, 2.07) 1.57 (1.26, 1.96) 0.943
  Normal weight 1 Ref. 1 Ref.  
  Overweight 1.04 (0.94, 1.16) 1.04 (0.92, 1.18) 0.948
  Obesity 1.36 (1.07, 1.74) 1.32 (1.11, 1.58) 0.792
 Smoking
  Current 2.49 (2.05, 3.02) 2.06 (1.83, 2.33) 0.053
  Former 1.33 (1.09, 1.62) 0.96 (0.84, 1.09) 0.008
  Never 1 Ref. 1 Ref.  
 Leisure activity
  Inactive 1.43 (1.21, 1.69) 1.50 (1.29, 1.75) 0.607
  Little 1.28 (1.10, 1.50) 1.15 (0.99, 1.33) 0.410
  Moderate 1.04 (0.92, 1.17) 1.03 (0.90, 1.17) 0.930
  Active 1 Ref. 1 Ref.  
 Sports activity
  Inactive 1.26 (1.09, 1.46) 1.41 (1.18, 1.69) 0.317
  Little 1.12 (0.89, 1.43) 1.15 (0.90, 1.47) 0.856
  Moderate 0.96 (0.78, 1.18) 1.09 (0.88, 1.35) 0.377
  Active 1 Ref. 1 Ref.  
Family-related factors
 Marital status
  Currently married 1 Ref. 1 Ref.  
  Previously married 1.55 (1.33, 1.79) 1.18 (1.05, 1.33) 0.008
  Never married 1.55 (1.27, 1.90) 1.31 (1.09, 1.58) 0.300
 Living arrangement
  Living with partner 1 Ref. 1 Ref.  
  Living alone 1.55 (1.35, 1.77) 1.21 (1.08, 1.35) 0.008
 Number of children
  0 1.10 (0.94, 1.28) 1.23 (1.04, 1.44) 0.288
  1 1.01 (0.85, 1.19) 1.20 (1.01, 1.43) 0.128
  2 1 Ref. 1 Ref.  
  3 or more 0.97 (0.86, 1.09) 0.92 (0.81, 1.04) 0.663
  1. Notes. aHR Hazard ratios. bCI Confidence interval. Mortality hazard ratios of the explanatory variable when controlling for education only. As the Cox regression models included age as timescale, it was unnecessary to also include age as a covariate in the models. cA possible differential association of these explanatory factors with mortality for men and women was determined by adding an interaction term between the explanatory factor and gender and testing its statistical significance (p value)