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Table 1 Educational gradients in explanatory factors for men and women

From: What’s the difference? A gender perspective on understanding educational inequalities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality

  Men Women Testing for a gender difference in gradient (p value) a
Lowest Low Mid High Lowest Low Mid High
Material factors
 Financial difficulties
  No 65.1% 76.2% 83.0% 92.6% 62.9% 78.8% 83.6% 90.0% 0.325
  Some 27.4% 21.3% 14.8% 6.5% 29.5% 17.7% 13.8% 9.0% 0.430
  Big 7.6% 2.6% 2.1% 0.9% 7.6% 3.5% 2.7% 1.0% 0.303
 Housing tenure
  Owned home 29.5% 48.4% 62.0% 76.5% 34.2% 53.0% 67.3% 74.2% 0.112
  Rented home 70.5% 51.6% 38.0% 23.5% 65.8% 47.0% 32.7% 25.8% "
 Health insurance
  Private 7.8% 27.0% 50.6% 79.0% 15.9% 31.2% 48.3% 66.6% < 0.001
  Public 92.2% 73.0% 49.4% 21.0% 84.1% 68.8% 51.7% 33.4% "
Employment-related factors
 Employment
  Employed 46.7% 60.2% 61.0% 66.1% 18.9% 24.4% 34.0% 41.0% 0.932
  Unemployed 27.6% 12.7% 9.6% 4.6% 9.7% 6.4% 4.9% 7.1% < 0.001
  Retired 25.1% 26.3% 27.9% 28.4% 6.9% 7.2% 10.0% 15.8% 0.065
  Other 0.5% 0.8% 1.6% 1.0% 64.4% 62.0% 51.1% 36.1% < 0.001
 Occupation of the breadwinner
  Professional 4.2% 16.8% 44.0% 85.3% 10.9% 25.5% 49.6% 77.4% < 0.001
  White collar 15.0% 23.7% 26.9% 8.5% 14.2% 22.3% 22.2% 11.7% 0.001
  Blue collar 78.4% 57.9% 27.0% 4.9% 52.4% 38.1% 18.9% 5.6% < 0.001
  Not in the workforce 2.5% 1.6% 2.2% 1.3% 22.6% 14.2% 9.2% 5.3% 0.001
Behavioural factors
 Alcohol consumption
  No 20.0% 13.0% 10.9% 6.7% 44.9% 31.5% 21.2% 17.2% 0.005
  Light 54.9% 61.2% 62.7% 67.6% 38.5% 47.8% 48.6% 51.7% 0.618
  Moderate 8.5% 11.4% 12.8% 15.1% 11.5% 13.5% 18.6% 20.9% 0.147
  Heavy 16.7% 14.4% 13.7% 10.5% 5.1% 7.3% 11.5% 10.2% < 0.001
 Body mass index (BMI)
  Underweight 4.3% 3.4% 3.4% 4.0% 7.2% 8.5% 10.1% 12.1% 0.071
  Normal weight 46.2% 46.9% 55.1% 61.8% 49.1% 56.2% 62.1% 65.0% 0.844
  Overweight 41.8% 44.6% 37.5% 32.4% 32.3% 28.5% 23.5% 17.7% 0.118
  Obese 7.6% 5.1% 4.0% 1.8% 11.4% 6.7% 4.3% 5.2% 0.989
 Smoking
  Current 54.8% 45.2% 38.2% 35.4% 42.1% 32.7% 28.9% 19.9% 0.009
  Former 34.1% 40.4% 43.5% 42.9% 21.7% 28.2% 30.7% 32.5% 0.181
  Never 11.1% 14.5% 18.3% 21.7% 36.2% 39.1% 40.4% 47.7% 0.056
 Leisure activity
  Inactive 15.5% 11.9% 12.2% 10.1% 18.6% 11.7% 10.8% 7.2% 0.003
  Little 12.9% 14.0% 14.4% 16.3% 16.8% 16.6% 15.3% 18.4% 0.119
  Moderate 22.5% 25.1% 26.0% 28.1% 29.7% 27.5% 29.9% 26.7% 0.005
  Active 49.1% 49.0% 47.5% 45.5% 34.9% 44.3% 44.0% 47.7% < 0.001
 Sports activity
  Inactive 73.3% 60.9% 51.6% 44.0% 72.9% 56.9% 46.2% 43.1% 0.320
  Little 4.8% 6.6% 9.4% 8.4% 7.2% 8.0% 8.7% 11.3% 0.391
  Moderate 9.9% 14.3% 16.6% 23.8% 12.4% 21.5% 26.9% 23.3% 0.302
  Active 12.0% 18.2% 22.4% 23.8% 7.4% 13.6% 18.2% 22.3% 0.004
Family-related factors
 Marital status
  Currently married 73.6% 82.1% 81.1% 77.7% 71.5% 78.0% 72.0% 65.9% 0.001
  Previously married 10.2% 7.5% 7.5% 8.7% 20.4% 15.4% 14.3% 11.2% 0.025
  Never married 16.2% 10.4% 11.4% 13.6% 8.2% 6.6% 13.7% 22.9% < 0.001
 Living arrangement
  Living with partner 78.0% 86.9% 86.4% 84.2% 75.7% 81.5% 76.7% 73.0% 0.001
  Living alone 22.0% 13.1% 13.6% 15.8% 24.3% 18.5% 23.3% 27.0% "
 Number of children
  0 26.0% 18.8% 22.3% 22.0% 12.2% 15.2% 21.8% 32.1% < 0.001
  1 16.6% 14.0% 12.2% 7.3% 14.4% 12.7% 10.8% 6.9% 0.275
  2 32.7% 38.5% 37.5% 35.4% 42.3% 38.5% 31.5% 29.0% < 0.001
  3 or more 24.6% 28.7% 28.1% 35.3% 31.0% 33.6% 35.9% 32.0% 0.015
  1. Notes. Age-standardised towards the age distribution of men and women observed in the data. The imputed values resulting from our multiple imputations strategy were also included in these distributions. a The p value of the difference in the educational gradient for men and women came from interaction models (education × gender) in which we additionally controlled for age and age × gender interactions