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Table 2 Multilevel mixed-effects multivariable linear regression model of maternal mortality – United States, 1997–2012

From: Population-level factors associated with maternal mortality in the United States, 1997–2012

Predictive Variable Coefficient 95% CI P value Share of change in maternal mortality attributable to factora
Adoption of 2003 Revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Death by 2011 + 6.26 [5.41–7.11] <.001 31.1%
Proportion of women of childbearing age with BMI ≥ 30 + 0.25 [0.15–0.34] <.001 31.0%
Proportion of births to women with diabetes + 0.39 [0.04–0.75] .03 17.0%
Proportion of women of childbearing age not having completed high school/GED + 0.17 [0.05–0.30] .005 5.3%
Proportion of births to women who attended fewer than 10 prenatal visits + 0.07 [0.01–0.14] .03 4.9%
Proportion of births to African American women + 0.20 [0.14–0.27] <.001 2.0%
  1. aPercentages sum to 91.3% of the time trend in maternal mortality attributable to the factors retained in the most parsimonious final model. Candidate predictor variables for the multilevel mixed-effects multivariable model that had P > 0.05 were removed from the most parsimonious final model shown here. BMI: Body Mass Index; GED: General Equivalency Diploma