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Table 2 Fungi species that have been isolated from house flies, including the site of isolation, the frequencies and their distribution

From: A systematic review of human pathogens carried by the housefly (Musca domestica L.)

Fungi genera Species Medical, veterinary or agricultural importance Geographical occurrence Site of specimen collection Host stage infected Prevalence Lab or field study Site of isolation References
Cladosporum C. cladosporoides Medical Worldwide Cattles diagnosed with bovine ringworm, animal pens, dump sites Adult/larvae 4.7–85% Field/lab External surfaces [56, 57]
Others Medical Worldwide Human habitation Larvae 0.2 Field External surfaces [53, 55]
Penicillium P. axalicum Medical Worldwide Fresh fish Larvae Field External surfaces [53]
P. corylophilum Medical Worldwide Animal pens, dump sites Larvae Field External surfaces [57]
P. fellutanum Medical Worldwide Animal pens, dump sites Larvae 11.9% Field External surfaces [57]
P. verrucosum Medical Worldwide Human habitation Adult Field External surfaces [60]
P. aurantiogriseum Medical Worldwide Human habitation Adult Field External surfaces [60]
Others Medical Worldwide Human habitation, Cattles diagnosed with bovine ringworm, hospitals, slaughter houses adult 3.4–21% Field/lab External surfaces [55, 56, 58, 59]
Aspergillus A. flavus Medical Worldwide Animal pens, dump sites, poultry farms, dairy, piggery, slaughter houses, open field Adult/larvae 23.8% Field External surfaces [52, 57, 60]
A niger Medical Worldwide Animal pens, dump sites Adult/larvae 14.4–85.71% Field External surfaces [7, 57]
A fumigatus Medical Worldwide Cafeteria and food centers Adult 85.71 Field External surfaces [7]
A tamari Medical Worldwide Fresh fish Larvae Field External surfaces [53]
A parasiticus Medical Worldwide Human habitation Adult Field External surfaces [60]
Others Medical Worldwide Human habitation, Cattles diagnosed with bovine ringworm, hospitals, slaughter houses Adult 2.8–67.4% Field/lab External surfaces [55, 56, 58, 59]
Beauveria B. bassiana Medical Worldwide Poultry farms, dairy, piggery, open field, slaughter houses Adult Field External surfaces [52]
Mucor M. cirinelloides Medical Worldwide Cafeteria and food centers Adult Field External surfaces [7]
Others Medical Worldwide Human habitation Adult 2% Field External surfaces [55]
Alternaria A. alternata Medical Worldwide Animal pens, dump sites Adult/larvae 1.4–11.9% Field External surfaces [53, 55, 57, 58]
Fusarium F. oxysporum Medical Worldwide Fresh fish Larvae Field External surfaces [53]
F. verticilliodes Medical Worldwide Human habitation Adult Field External surfaces [60]
F. proliferatum Medical Worldwide Human habitation Adult Field External surfaces [60]
Others Medical Worldwide Animal pens, dump sites, Human habitation, hospitals, slaughter houses Larvae 4.7–17% Field External surfaces [55, 57, 58]
Curvularia C. brachyspora Medical Worldwide Animal pens, dump sites Adult 2.4% Field External surfaces [57]
Mycelia M. sterilia Medical Worldwide Animal pens, dump sites Adult 2.4% Field External surfaces [57]
Candida C. albicans Medical Worldwide Pig pen, Human habitation Adult 44.6% Field External surfaces [51, 54]
C. glabrata Medical Worldwide Human habitation Adult 23% Field External surfaces [51]
C. krusei Medical Worldwide Human habitation Adult 19.6% Field External surfaces [51]
C. tropicalis Medical Worldwide Pig pen, Human habitation Adult 7.4% Field External surfaces [51, 54]
C. dubliniensis Medical Worldwide Human habitation Adult 3.6% Field External surfaces [51]
C. parapsilisis Medical Worldwide Human habitation Adult 1.8% Field External surfaces [51]
Others Medical Worldwide Human habitation Adult 10.5% Field External surfaces [59]
Microsporum M. canis Veterinary Worldwide Laboratory experiment Adult/larvae Field External surfaces/internal organs [85]
M. gypseum Medical Worldwide Hospitals, slaughter houses Adult Field External surfaces [58]
Chrysosporium Chrysosporium spp. Medical Worldwide Human habitation Adult 2% Field External surfaces [55]
Curvalaria Curvalaria spp. Agricultural Worldwide Human habitation Adult 0.4% Field External surfaces [55]
Epicoccum Epicoccum spp. Medical Worldwide Human habitation Adult 1% Field External surfaces [55]
Eupenicillium Eupenicillium spp. Medical Worldwide Human habitation Adult 1% Field External surfaces [55]
Moniliella Moniliella spp. Medical and veterinary Worldwide Human habitation Adult 9% Field External surfaces [55]
Nigrospora Nigrospora spp. Agricultural Worldwide Human habitation Adult 1% Field External surfaces [55]
Rhizopus Rhizopus spp. Veterinary Worldwide Human habitation Adult 2% Field External surfaces [55]
Scopulariopsis Scopulariopsis spp. Veterinary Worldwide Human habitation Adult 2% Field External surfaces [55]
Mucorales Mucorales spp. Medical Worldwide Hospitals Adult 11% Field External surfaces [59]
Rhodotorula Rhodotorula spp. Medical/veterinary Worldwide Hospitals Adult 8.4% Field External surfaces [59]
Moniliella M. suaveolans Medical Worldwide Human habitation Adult Field External surfaces [60]