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Table 1 Bacteria species that have been isolated from house flies, including the site of isolation, the frequencies and their distribution

From: A systematic review of human pathogens carried by the housefly (Musca domestica L.)

Bacteria genera Species Medical and/or veterinary importance Geographical occurrence Site of specimen collection Host stage infected Prevalence Lab or field study Site of isolation References
Helicobacter H. pylori Medical Worldwide Laboratory reared Adult Lab External surfaces/internal organs [70,71,72]
Campylobacter C. jejuni Medical and veterinary Worldwide Poultry, piggery Adult/larvae 6.2% Field/ Lab External surfaces/internal organs [73, 74, 87, 90]
C. coli Medical and veterinary Worldwide Poultry, piggery Adult 90.1% Field External surfaces/internal organs [74]
Others Medical and veterinary Worldwide Restaurant, refuse dumps, barbecue shops, fruits and food vendors, markets, poultries (broiler farms) Adult Field External surfaces/internal organs [38, 75]
Salmonella S. typhimurium Medical Worldwide Laboratory experiment Adult Lab   [37]
S. enterica serovar Enteritidis Medical Worldwide Poultry, dumpsters Adult/larvae 6–70% Lab/field External surfaces/internal organs [23, 28, 39]
Others Medical Worldwide Restaurant, refuse dumps, barbecue shops, fruits and food vendors, markets, fish vendors, human habitation Adult 11.8–66.67% Field External surfaces/internal organs [25, 27, 29, 70,71,72, 91]
Escherichia E. coli Medical Worldwide Human habitation, cafeteria and food centers, hospitals, open fields, poultry farms, slaughter houses, cattle farms, animal hospitals Adult/larvae 10.5–76.3% Field/lab External surfaces/internal organs [2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24, 29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38, 40, 43,44,45,46, 48, 89, 92]
Bacillus B. anthrax Medical and veterinary Worldwide Laboratory reared Adult Lab External surfaces/Internal organs [76]
B. megatarium non Worldwide Cafeteria and food centers Adult 50% Field External surfaces/Internal organs [7]
B. sphaericus Medical Worldwide Cafeteria and food centers Adult 50% Field External surfaces/Internal organs [7]
B. cereus Medical Worldwide Fresh fish Larvae Field External surfaces/Internal organs [46, 53]
B. alvei Medical Worldwide Cafeteria and food centers Adult 50% Field External surfaces/Internal organs [7]
B. pumilus Medical Worldwide   Adult Field External surfaces/Internal organs [46]
B. thuringiensis non Worldwide   Adult Field External surfaces/Internal organs [46]
Others Medical Worldwide Dairy farms, hospitals, slaughter houses, fruit and food centers Adult 31.1% Field External surfaces [10, 20, 44, 61, 89]
Staphylococcus S. aureus Medical Worldwide Human habitation, fresh fish Adult/ larvae 26.9% Field External surfaces/Internal organs [40, 45, 53, 77, 92]
S. epidermidis Medical Worldwide Human habitation Adult Field External surfaces/Internal organs [40]
S. sciuri Medical/veterinary Worldwide Dumpsters of restaurants Adult Field External surfaces [46]
S. saprophyticus Medical Worldwide Dumpsters of restaurants Adult Field External surfaces [46]
S. xylosus Medical Worldwide Dumpsters of restaurants Adult Field External surfaces [46]
Others Medical/veterinary Worldwide Poutry, animal farms, garden, garbage/dump areas, restaurants/cafeteria, markets, human habitation, hospitals Adult 22.9–28.2% Field External surfaces/Internal organs [10, 20, 48, 78, 79, 89, 91]
Enterococcus E. faecalis Medical Worldwide Restaurants, piggery farms Adult 55.5–88.2% Field/lab External surfaces/Internal organs [21, 49, 50]
E. faecium Medical Worldwide Restaurants, piggery farms Adult 6.8–12.8% Field/lab External surfaces/Internal organs [49, 50]
E. casseliflavus Medical Worldwide Restaurants, piggery farms Adult 4.9–6.7% Field/lab External surfaces/Internal organs [49, 50]
E. hirae Medical/veterinary Worldwide piggery farms Adult 12.8% Field/lab External surfaces/Internal organs [50]
Aeromonas A. caviae Medical Worldwide Hospitals, streets, slaughter houses (abattoir) Adult 39–78% Field Internal organs [48, 80, 81]
A hydrophila Medical Worldwide Open field Adult Field Internal organs [82]
Others Medical Worldwide Poutry, animal farms, garden, garbage/dump areas, restaurants/cafeteria, markets, human habitation, hospitals Adult Field Internal organs [79]
Shigella S. sonnei Medical Worldwide Hospitals, streets, slaughter houses Adult Field Internal organs [48]
S. dysenteriae Medical Worldwide Dumpsters of restaurants Adult Field Internal organs [46]
Others Medical Worldwide Poultry, animal farms, garden, garbage/dump areas, restaurants/cafeteria, markets, human habitation, hospitals Adult 4.8–66.67% field External surfaces/ internal organs [11, 13, 29, 38, 40, 43, 79, 91]
Klebsiella K. pneumoniae Medical Worldwide Hospitals, human habitation, slaughter houses Adult 11.3–82% field External surfaces/ internal organs [15, 47, 82]
K. oxytoca Medical   Open field Adult Field External surfaces [83]
Others Medical   Poutry, animal farms,garden, garbage/dump areas, restaurants/cafeteria, markets, human habitation, hospitals, slaughter houses, open field Adult Field External surfaces [40, 44, 48, 61, 79, 89]
Pseudomonas P. aeruginosa Medical Worldwide Dump sites, slaughter houses, open field, human habitation, fresh fish, hospitals Adult/larvae 37% field External surfaces/internal organs [15, 19, 53, 61, 84]
Others Medical Worldwide Hospitals, streets, slaughter houses, Adult 21.8% Field External surfaces/internal organs [44, 48, 92]
Proteus P. mirabilis Medical Worldwide Slaughter houses, hospitals Adult 29.1% field External surfaces/internal organs [15]
P. vulgaris Medical Worldwide Human habitation Adult Field External surfaces/internal organs [40]
Proteus sp. Medical Worldwide Slaughter houses, dump sites, open fields, human habitations Adult 14.8% Field External surfaces/internal organs [61, 89, 92]
Citrobacter C. freundi Medical Worldwide Cafeteria and food centers, Slaughter houses, hospitals Adult 28.4% field External surfaces/internal organs [7, 15]
Chronobacter C. turicensis, Medical Worldwide Poultry, dumpsters Adult/larvae 14% Field/lab External surfaces/internal organs [23, 28]
C. universalis Medical Worldwide Poultry, dumpsters Adult/larvae Field/lab External surfaces/internal organs [23, 28]
C. sakazakii Medical Worldwide Poultry, dumpsters Adult/larvae Field/lab External surfaces/internal organs [23, 28, 46]
Listeria L. monocytogenes Medical Worldwide Poultry, dumpsters Adult/larvae 3–49.4% Field/lab External surfaces/internal organs [23, 28, 54]
Others Medical/veterinary Worldwide Animal farms Adult Field External surfaces/internal organs [78]
Streptococcus S. pyogenes medical Worldwide Fresh fish, human habitation Adult/larvae Field External surfaces/internal organs [40, 53]
S. faecalis Medical Worldwide Fresh fish Larvae Field External surfaces/internal organs [53]
Others Medical Worldwide Hospitals, slaughter houses, streets, dump sites, open fields, human habitation Adult 66.67% Field External surfaces/internal organs [48, 61, 89, 91]
Alternaria Alternaria spp. Medical Worldwide Fresh fish, Human habitation Larvae 1.4–6% Field   [15, 53, 55]
Serratia Serratia spp. Medical worldwide Human habitation Adult Field Internal organs [40]
Enterobacter Enterobacter spp. Medical Worldwide Human habitation Adult Field Internal organs [40, 89]
Edwardsiella Edwardsiella spp. Medical Worldwide Poultry Adult field External surfaces/internal organs [43]
Providencia Providencia spp. Medical Worldwide Poultry, animal farms, garden, garbage/dump areas, restaurants/cafeteria, markets, human habitation, hospitals, slaughter houses, open field Adult Field External surfaces/ internal organs [43, 79]
Vibrio Vibrio cholera non O1 Medical Worldwide Human habitation Adult 45.7% Field Internal organs [29]
Others Medical / veterinary Worldwide Animal farms Adult Field External surfaces/ internal organs [78]
Morganella M. morgana Medical Worldwide Poutry, animal farms,garden, garbage/dump areas, restaurants/cafeteria, markets, human habitation, hospitals, slaughter houses, open field Adult 16.67% Field External surfaces/Internal organs [7, 79]
Clostridium Clostridium spp. Medical Worldwide Dairy farms Adult Field Internal organs [10]
Corynebacterium Corynebacterium spp. Medical Worldwide Dairy farms Adult Field Internal organs [10]
Lactobacillus Lactobacillus spp. Medical Worldwide Dairy farms Adult Field Internal organs [10]
Yersinia Y. enterocolitica Medical Worldwide Hospitals, streets, slaughter houses Adult Field Internal organs [48]
Burkholderia B. pseudomallei Medical Worldwide Open field Adult Field Internal organs [83]
Acinetobacter A. baumanni Medical worldwide Poultry, dumpsters Adult Field Internal organs [46, 89]
Methylobacterium M. persicinum Medical Worldwide Poultry, dumpsters Adult Field Internal organs [46]
Micrococcus Micrococcus sp. Medical Worldwide Garbage/dump areas, poultry, restaurants Adult Field External surfaces/Internal organs [89]