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Table 3 Multinominal logistic regression analyses on associations between sociodemographic factors and single types of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs)

From: How adverse childhood experiences relate to single and multiple health risk behaviours in German public university students: a cross-sectional analysis

Sociodemographic characteristics 1 ACE (n = 348) 2 ACEs (n = 216) 3 ACEs (n = 135) 4+ ACEs (n = 355)
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Female (ref.: male) 1.25 (0.86–1.81) 1.01 (0.67–1.53) 1.42 (0.85–2.35) 1.09 (0.76–1.58)
Individual age (ref.: > 25 years)
 < 21 years 1.05 (0.56–1.96) 1.08 (0.56–2.10) 0.22 (0.08–0.59) 0.69 (0.36–1.27)
 21–22 years 0.73 (0.40–1.33) 0.56 (0.29–1.08) 0.47 (0.23–0.97) 0.55 (0.31–0.99)
 23–25 years 1.01 (0.61–1.65) 0.64 (0.37–1.11) 0.28 (0.14–0.56) 0.59 (0.35–0.92)
Parental age (ref.: > 59 years)
 < 51 years 1.05 (0.55–2.01) 0.83 (0.41–1.66) 2.12 (0.81–5.56) 0.93 (0.51–1.71)
 51–54 years 1.12 (0.65–1.93) 1.03 (0.59–1.83) 2.12 (0.95–4.75) 0.59 (0.35–1.00)
 55–59 years 1.03 (0.61–1.76) 0.54 (0.30–0.99) 2.77 (1.31–5.86) 0.49 (0.29–0.82)
Migration background (ref.: none) 1.04 (0.60–1.80) 1.51 (0.87–2.64) 0.57 (0.25–1.33) 1.55 (0.94–2.58)
Low parental education (ref.: high) 1.12 (0.74–1.70) 1.32 (0.85–2.07) 1.70 (0.99–2.89) 1.69 (1.13–2.51)
Family SES (ref.: very high)
 Very low 4.76 (2.49–9.12) 6.13 (3.11–12.09) 4.81 (2.14–10.84) 8.08 (4.35–15.01)
 Low 1.92 (1.16–3.17) 1.83 (1.05–3.19) 1.13 (0.53–2.39) 1.82 (1.10–3.03)
 High 2.24 (1.35–3.72) 1.50 (0.83–2.72) 2.23 (1.10–4.52) 1.69 (0.99–2.87)
  1. Note: Multinomial logistical regression, reference category = no exposure (n = 412), weighted results; significant values (p < 0.05) are in bold; OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval; SES household: very low = 0–1 on a score from 0 to 3; low = 1.33–1.67 on a score of 0–3; high = 2.00–2.33 on a score of 0–3; very high = 2.67–3.00 on a score of 0–3