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Table 1 Descriptive statistics (N = 3397). Mean (SD) shown for continuous variables, frequencies (%) shown for categorical variables

From: Quit outcomes among clients ineligible for cessation medication through the state quitline: a retrospective, observational study

Characteristics Referral type P-value
Self (n = 1666) Passive (n = 458) Proactive (n = 1273)
Age (years) 48.7 (13.0) 50.1 (11.6) 49.1 (12.9) 0.11
Gender     0.02
 Male 572 (34.4) 158 (34.7) 494 (39.1)  
 Female 1089 (65.6) 298 (65.4) 768 (60.9)  
Race     0.01*
 White 1211 (81.6) 327 (79.6) 782 (76.9)  
 Black or AA 144 (9.7) 44 (10.7) 138 (13.6)  
 Asian 6 (0.4) 3 (0.7) 11 (1.1)  
 American Indian 40 (2.7) 7 (1.7) 38 (3.7)  
 Multiracial 45 (3.0) 17 (4.1) 18 (1.8)  
 Other 38 (2.6) 13 (3.2) 30 (3.0)  
Education     < 0.0001
 High school or less 834 (50.1) 241 (52.6) 782 (61.4)  
 Some college or more 832 (49.9) 217 (47.4) 491 (38.6)  
Hispanic 251 (18.2) 66 (17.3) 309 (31.8) < 0.0001
Children living in the household 435 (31.1) 107 (28.1) 334 (33.2) 0.17
Family size 2.4 (1.7) 2.5 (1.8) 2.6 (1.8) 0.03
Chronic condition 1066 (66.7) 327 (74.5) 886 (72.1) 0.01
Mental health condition 951 (59.9) 273 (63.5) 725 (59.5) 0.33
Baseline tobacco use behaviors
Other smokers in the home 626 (46.8) 176 (47.6) 523 (52.5) 0.02
Smoking allowed in the home     0.05
 Not allowed 731 (52.3) 202 (52.2) 482 (47.7)  
 Allowed in some places 221 (15.8) 67 (17.3) 201 (20.2)  
 Allowed anywhere 446 (31.9) 118 (30.5) 325 (32.2)  
Number of cigarettes smoked per day, mean (SD) 16.6 (10.1) 17.6 (11.7) 14.7 (8.9) < 0.0001
Nicotine dependence, mean (SD) 5.0 (2.3) 5.1 (2.3) 4.6 (2.2) 0.01
Other baseline factors
Number of quit attempts during past 12 months, mean (SD) 2.8 (7.8) 2.8 (7.5) 2.0 (3.4) 0.01
Confidence to quit (for at least 24 h)     0.56
 Poor, fair 237 (16.8) 68 (17.4) 186 (18.5)  
 good, very good, excellent 1170 (83.2) 323 (82.6) 818 (81.5)  
Intention to quit (in the next 30 days)     < 0.0001
 No, I don’t know 41 (3.6) 11 (2.8) 80 (7.8)  
 Yes, I have already quit 1369 (96.4) 388 (97.2) 945 (92.2)  
Social support     0.01
 Poor, fair 357 (25.3) 75 (19.3) 272 (27.4)  
 good, very good, excellent 1055 (74.7) 313 (80.7) 720 (72.6)  
Post-baseline factors
Reach rate** 58.0% 56.4% 58.5% 0.42
Number of coaching sessions before 7-month follow-up     0.92
 0–4 994 (59.7) 278 (60.7) 764 (60.0)  
 5+ 672 (40.3) 180 (39.3) 509 (40.0)  
Days in program 85.1 (83.5) 80.7 (76.8) 79.1 (67.5) 0.11
Others smokers at home (7-month follow-up) 506 (30.8) 156 (34.5) 418 (33.4) 0.19
Medication use 948 (56.9) 280 (61.1) 682 (53.6) 0.01
Quit 585 (35.1) 165 (36.0) 400 (31.4) 0.06
  1. Boldface indicates statistical significance (p < 0.05)
  2. * Fisher’s Exact Test used for comparisons
  3. ** Reach rate is calculated using data for all clients with a mode of entry (n = 10,925)