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Table 4 Synopsis of reviews relating to parenting support in the perinatal period

From: Supporting parenting to address social inequalities in health: a synthesis of systematic reviews

country where study was conducted (if multiple: country of first author) references strategy or intervention strategy or intervention review’s aim principal results to be noted on the problem or its determinants level of evidence examples of validated programmes characteristics of validated programmes
UK Miller S. Maguire L.K. Macdonald. Home-based child development interventions for preschool children from socially disadvantaged families. Cochrane systematic reviews. Dec 2011. home-based programmes promoting children’s cognitive and socio-emotional development socially disadvantaged families, preschool children to know the effects of these programmes future studies should endeavour to better document and describe their methodological processes no evidence of effectiveness because of a lack of documentation of the methodological processes [old studies n = 7, between 1973 and 1993; participants n = 723] _ _
US, AUSTRALIA, UK, GERMANY, JAPAN, NETH, NZ Barlow J. Smailagic N. Huband N. Roloff V. Bennett C.Group-based parent training programmes for improving parental psychosocial health. Cochrane systematic reviews.May 2014. parenting support to improve the psychosocial health of parents all parents and children to determine whether the programmes were effective in improving psychosocial wellbeing short-term improvement (< 6 months) in parents’ health (depression, anxiety, stress, anger, guilt, self-confidence) significant results [studies, n = 48; participants n = 4937] Parent Management Training, Triple P, Behavioural-Based Parenting Programme, Prevention Programme for Externalising Problem, Community Outreach Parent Empowerment, Maternal Stress Coping Group Programme, Incredible Years behavioural and /or cognitivesupport: regular group therapy, telephone support
KOREA, JAPAN, SWI, NETH, US Barlow J, Smailagic N, Bennett C, Huband N, Jones H, Coren E. Individual and group based parenting programmes for improving psychosocial outcomes for teenage parents and their children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 3. individual and group parental support programmes to improve psychosocial results for parents and their children adolescent parents under the age of 20 to evaluate the effectiveness of these programmes short- and long-term improvement in parent-child interactions. Improvement in psychosocial health: reduction in anxiety and depression, increase in self-esteem. lack of methodological rigour and lack of a sufficiently large sample to compile enough data to produce sufficient statistical power [studies n = 8, participants n = 513] short videos of exchanges with parent, therapy groups, education in the form of parent-child interactive simulation behavioural support and / or improving knowledge
US, UK, CAN, AUSTRALIA, MEX, PERU Barlow J, Bergman H, Kornør H, Wei Y, Bennett C. Group-based parent training programmes for improving emotional and behavioural adjustment in young children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016. group training programmes for mothers to improve the emotional and behavioural adjustment of children parents of children under 3 to evaluate the effectiveness of these programmes reduction in stress and anger moderate short-term evidence of emotional and behavioural adjustment. Insufficient data to prove the effectiveness of primary prevention and provide long-term results [studies n = 24; participants n = 3161] 1–2-3 Magic video, group therapy on parent-child interaction, interventions targeting verbal and corporal punishment, Triple P behavioural and / or cognitive support, meetings between parents or between professionals and parents over the course of several weeks
US, NEPAL, BRAZIL, UK, CAN, AUSTRALIA Bryanton J, Beck CT, Montelpare W. Postnatal parental education for optimizing infant general health and parent-infant relationships. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 11. postnatal parental education to optimise the general health of infants and parent-infant relationships parent groups or individual meetings, from birth to two months to evaluate the effectiveness of these programmes improvement in infant’s sleep, maternal knoweldge and infant’s security. Improvement in mother-father-child interaction. Improvement in infant’s language development. evaluation and / or larger sample required to be able to draw conclusions [trials n = 15; mothers n = 2922 and fathers n = 402] evaluation and / or larger sample required to be able to draw conclusions education on the infant’s behaviour
UK, US, CAN, KOREA, ISRAEL, INDIA, TURKEY, IRAN Bennett C, Underdown A, Barlow J. Massage for promoting mental and physical health in typically developing infants under the age of six months. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 4. massage aimed at promoting the mental and physical health of infants typically developing children under the age of six months to evaluate the effectiveness of these programmes future research studies will have to examine the beneficial effects of infant massage in populations that present higher risks (for example: socially disadvantaged parent-child duos) vast majority of the studies were of poor methodological quality [studies n = 24] _ _
Finnish authors, mainly English and American studies Tiitinen S. Homanen R. Lindfors P. Ruusuvuori J. Approaches used in investigating family support in transition to parenthood. Health Promot Int. 2014 Sep;29(3):518–27. review describing the research methods used to study parenting support interventions mainly parents in maternity units (post-partum stay) to know the priority research areas, methods used and groups targeted the fathers’ issues, rarely studied separately from those of the mothers. The studies targeting parents’ needs focused mainly on socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Very few longitudinal studies (with interviews at different stages of the pregnancy or after the birth) articles n = 98 published before 2009, mainly English and American (bias linked to a consideration of epidemiological risk and the British and American health systems). Majority RCTs, with no intervention process evaluation approach (why the interventions are effective or ineffective). _ map of recent research on support for parents in maternity units focusing on three key areas: the professionals’ representations of the families’ needs; effectiveness of the interventions; processes of care in maternity units
UK, US Lakshman R. Ogilvie. Ong KK. Mothers’ experiences of bottle-feeding: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies. Arch Dis Child. 2009 Aug;94(8). mothers’ experiences of giving their babies formula milk mothers bottle-feeding their newborns to understand how the decision to use substitute milk is made through lack of information and support, the mothers experience negative feelings (anger, guilt, worry, uncertainty) proven evidence [studies: qualitative n = 6 and quantitative n = 17; participants n = 13,263] not applicable not applicable
UK, SWE, IRE, AUSTRALIA, SING, TURK Entsieh A, Hallström I. First-time parents’ prenatal needs for early parenthood preparation-A systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative literature. Midwifery. 2016 Aug;39:1–11. meta-analysis of the specific needs of parents preparing for parenthood parents during the antenatal period to contribute to existing knowledge on the specific needs of parents preparing for early parenthood parents should have the opportunity to actively participate in the interventions, which should begin early prenatal and continue into postnatal. Introduction of family education meetings early in the postnatal period research method based on the PRISMA guidelines. Qualitative approach [studies n = 12, participants n = 916] family education courses for adults with participatory learning strategies. The parents call for discussions with their peers. not applicable
AUSTRALIA Welsh J, Strazdins L, Ford L, Friel S, O’Rourke K, Carbone S, Carlon L. Promoting equity in the mental wellbeing of children and young people: a scoping review. Health Promot Int. 2015 Sep;30 Suppl 2:ii36–76. interventions aimed at promoting mental wellbeing and reducing inequalities children and young people living in high-income countries [US, UK, AUSTRALIA and others] to identify best practice according to population strata plus gaps in the evidence base in order to put forward recommendations possibility of using a proportionate universalism approach centred on the question of equity in the promotion of mental wellbeing encouraging proven evidence based on the interventions the interventions were either universal or specifically targeted at children from disadvantaged families; no interventions involving social gradients encouraging evidence that interventions and education in the family setting have succeeded in supporting positive parenting, both universally and for disadvantaged groups
“worldwide”: mainly US Panter-Brick C, Burgess A, Eggerman M, McAllister F, Pruett K, Leckman J. Practitioner Review: Engaging fathers – recommendations for a game change in parenting interventions based on a systematic review of the global evidence. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014 Nov; 55(11): 1187–1212. interventions relating to parenting and fathers: evaluation of the implicit and explicit biases in current research approaches, interventions and policies interventions targeting couples or fathers to determine how fathers currently participate in parenting-related interventions and what improvements can be made to encourage their participation the main obstacles to paternal engagement in parental education programmes were cultural, institutional, professional and operational in nature and were linked to the programme’s content, resources and policy considerations at the conception and implementation stages proven evidence [publications n = 199] the father’s investment in the role of parent impacts the mother and child fathers have minimal involvement in programmes and interventions
US, UK, AUSTRALIA Poole MK, Seal DW, Taylor CA. A systematic review of universal campaigns targeting child physical abuse prevention. Health Educ Res. 2014 Jun;29(3):388–432. prevention of the physical abuse of children universal campaigns, general population to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions and improve future prevention campaigns recommandations: increase social support for parents, increase knowledge through the use of positive parenting techniques, better knowledge of a child’s physiological development promising. Lack of evaluation of the programmes targeting general population [articles n = 17, for interventions n = 15] Triple P televised programmes. Internet sites
mainly US and UK Mcdaid D, Park AL. Investing in mental health and well-being: findings from the DataPrev project. Health Promot Int. 2011 Dec;26 Suppl 1:i108–39. mental health and wellbeing: the economic arguments early years, parents and older people to identify economic evaluations comparing the effectiveness and costs of interventions promoting mental health low cost; major benefit for mothers and babies proven evidence for parental support interventions nurse-led actions: advice and education for mother and child home-visit programmes for parents, or physiological education on babies’ sleep
US, AUSTRALIA, UK,CAN Perry M, Becerra F, Kavanagh J, Serre A, Vargas E, Becerril V. Community-based interventions for improving maternal health and for reducing maternal health inequalities in high-income countries: a systematic map of research. Global Health. 2015 Jul 1;10:63. map of community health interventions: reducing inequalities in maternal health high-income countries. MASCOT project (Multilateral Association for Studying health inequalities and enhancing north–south and south-south COoperaTion) to systematically identify the literature on community-based maternal health interventions and to describe the subjects that they tackle and the nature of the interventions in relation to inequalities in maternal health the role of information networks and advertising is a pertinent but as yet unexplored research topic. This project opens the way for studies on the effectiveness and possibility of transferring interventions further research needed to analyse and compare the effectiveness of the interventions mapped in this study [publications n = 119 between 2000 and 2013] the interventions concerned breastfeeding, postnatal depression, support and capacity building in the parental role, prenatal preparation for the birth, birth planning the interventions took place mainly in the home setting. The health professionals were the principal operators in these interventions
UK, IRE Morrison J, Pikhart H, Ruiz M, Goldblatt P. Systematic review of parenting interventions in European countries aiming to reduce social inequalities in children’s health and development. BMC Public Health. 2014 Oct 6;14:1040. early-childhood interventions that have reduced inequalities in children’s health and development Europe. In reality, the interventions studied were conducted in the UK and Ireland to identify early-childhood interventions that have reduced inequalities in children’s health and development a more exhaustive evaluation of interventions must be carried out in a larger range of countries than just the UK and Ireland. proven evidence plus other studies requiring a more in-depth evaluation [interventions n = 23] the interventions in the review aimed to improve parenting skills and housing conditions. The study also looked at psychological therapies higher level of evidence shown when there was a combination of educational workshops and programmes for parents and children that began during early pregnancy and included home visits from specialist personnel
authors: CAN; interventions: US Piotrowski CC, Talavera GA, Mayer JA. Healthy Steps: a systematic review of a preventive practice-based model of pediatric care. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2009 Feb;30(1):91–103. “Healthy Steps for Young Children”, national programme aimed at providing parents with educational information and advice and allowing early screening United States. Parents of newborns and their children to systematically evaluate and summarise the “Healthy Steps” programme for young children nurses, educators and social workers were trained for this programme on the subjects of parenting, child development and the importance of relationships and team building proven evidence. Prospective study conducted over 3 years (cohort of newborns n = 5000) [articles n = 13] more optimal vaccination coverage and care trajectory compared to control group the state awarded a certification to the university hospitals, clinics and federally qualified health centres that organised six home visits during the children’s first three years. A dedicated phone line enabled parents to connect with the programme specialists.
authors: NETH; studies: NETH, CAN, US Van Vuuren C. L. Reijneveld S.A. Van der Wal M. F. Verhoeff A.P. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation characteristics in child (0–18 years) health studies: A review. Health & Place, Vol 29, Sep, 2014 pp. 34–42. list of the characteristics of disadvantage used in research examining the link between environment and children’s health studies on the residents of socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to study the socioeconomic characteristics of disadvantage used in research studies on children’s health major problem in conclusion: no evidence-based frames of reference for the socioeconomic characteristics used in the study protocols studies n = 19 not applicable major problem: the data used were those available and not those based on health. Income, employment and education were the most frequently used characteristics. Problem: no consensus on the best measures to use
US, UK, CAN and others Gilmer C. Buchan J. L. Letourneau N. Bennett C. T. Shanker S.G.; Fenwick A. Smith-Chant B. Parent education interventions designed to support the transition to parenthood: A realist review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, Vol 59, Jul, 2016 pp. 118–133. realist review of access to parenting interventions pregnant women and parents of children under 1 to identify potentially effective health education interventions during the transition to parenthood period a priori assumption of lack of parental information. No evaluation of pre-intervention “knowledge”. Hypothesis was an assumed lack of parenting skills. no convincing evidence that a single educational programme was universally effective. Level of evidence from the studies difficult to evaluate because of a lack of description of the intervention’s conception, content, implementation or result (particularly attrition). No study evaluated the impact on the child [articles n = 72] programmes were most effective when parents were already involved. A male facilitator increased the ongoing participation of the fathers. Parents followed the programmes more when they responded to their immediate issues (approach to childbirth, infant’s sleep) mainly a series of lessons (generally between 5 and 8) covering a wide range of subjects. Frequently information brochures. Few programmes aimed at fathers.
US, CAN, UK, AUSTRALIA Geens N. Vandenbroeck M. The (ab)sense of a concept of social support in parenting research: a social work perspective. Child & Family Social Work, 19: 491–500. 2014. social support in parenting: the “(ab)sense” of a concept sociology articles. No focus on perinatal period. to explore how social support can be conceptualised through social work publications the relational aspect is barely developed in research into social support linked to children’s education. Social support is a way of preventing or reducing the harmful risks of depression, stress, anxiety and other mental illnesses. It is also a way of increasing the feeling of control. proven evidence [articles n = 28] social support was principally studied in relation to parents’ health. Social relationships were highly pertinent for families but were given little consideration by social services research into social links and social capital cannot exclude a recognition of inequality: the quantity and quality of resources and the way in which they are used can vary enormously according to socioeconomic class
MALTA, UK Spiteri G. Xuereb R.B. Carrick-Sen D. Kaner E. Martin C.R. Preparation for parenthood: a concept analysis. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, Vol 32(2), Mar, 2014 pp. 148–165. preparing for parenthood: an analysis of the concept mothers and fathers to analyse the concept of preparing for parenthood (discourse analysis and theoretical foundations) parenting is unique to each individual, affected by cultural and societal expectations as well as lifestyle. Parental stress disrupts parent-child interactions, increases a child’s aggression and hyperactivity levels and generates an increased number of situations of negligence or abuse limited evidence: few elements define the concept of preparing for parenthood _ _
AUSTRALIA Halford W. Kim Petch J. Couple Psychoeducation for New Parents: Observed and Potential Effects on Parenting. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, Vol 13(2), Jun, 2010 pp. 164–180. critical analysis of the links between the couple’s relationship and their parenting parent couples to evaluate whether the couple’s relationship has a major influence on their parenting psychoeducation has considerable potential in terms of improving a couple’s adjustment to parenthood and increasing their awareness and receptiveness in regard to their newborn proven evidence [trials n = 11] the couple’s relationship influences their parenting behaviours _