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Table 3 A final two-level multivariate model without interaction terms measuring association between predictor variables and self-rated health with corresponding adjusted odds ratios,95% CI, and p-values

From: Pain and self-rated health among middle-aged and older Canadians: an analysis of the Canadian community health survey―healthy aging

Variable Odds ratio 95%CI P-value
Lower Upper
Gender/sex
 Male Ref. category    
 Female 1.36 1.28 1.46 < 0.001
Educational level
 Less than secondary Ref. category    
 Secondary graduation 1.82 1.66 2.01 < 0.001
 Other post-secondary 1.83 1.58 2.13 < 0.001
 Post-secondary graduation 1.98 1.84 2.13 < 0.001
Total household income, CAD
  < = $20,000 Ref. category    
 $20,000–$39,999 1.35 1.23 1.47 < 0.001
 $40,000–$59,999 2.06 1.84 2.31 < 0.001
 $60,000–$79,999 2.99 2.60 3.43 < 0.001
 $80,000 or more 4.43 3.88 5.07 < 0.001
 Not stated 1.45 1.30 1.60 < 0.001
Marital status
 Married/common law Ref. category    
 Divorced/separate/widowed 1.03 0.95 1.10 0.494
 Never married/single 1.19 1.05 1.34 0.005
Life stress
 No Ref. category    
 Yes 0.59 0.55 0.63 < 0.001
Self-reported BMI
 Normalweight Ref. category    
 Underweight 0.48 0.39 0.59 < 0.001
 Overweight 0.93 0.86 0.99 0.046
 Obese 0.60 0.55 0.65 < 0.001
Depression
 No Ref. category    
 Yes 0.59 0.54 0.64 < 0.001
Loneliness
 No Ref. category    
 Yes     
Type of smoker 0.58 0.54 0.63 < 0.001
 Never/former smoker Ref. category    
 Daily 0.79 0.73 0.86 < 0.001