Skip to main content

Table 4 Relative age difference, expressed in quarters, and the scores obtained in cardiorespiratory fitness, trunk endurance, upper body strength, flexibility and movement skill assessments for children 8 to 12 years participating in the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy

From: Influence of the relative age effect on children’s scores obtained from the Canadian assessment of physical literacy

  Boys Girls
  PACER (laps) (n = 3970) Timed plank (sec) (n = 4044) Grip strength (kg) (n = 4045) Sit-and-reach (cm) (n = 4044) CAMSA (n = 4011) PACER (laps) (n = 3970) Timed plank (sec) (n = 4080) Grip strength (kg) (n = 4085) Sit-and-reach (cm) (n = 4077) CAMSA (n = 4033)
Quarter 1
(mean [95% CI])
28.1
[27.1–29.0]
63.5
[60.8–66.2]
36.1
[35.5–36.6]
25.4
[24.9–25.9]
32.4
[32.0–32.7]
22.1
[21.4–22.8]
62.7
[60.1–65.2]
34.1
[33.6–34.6]
31.2
[30.7–31.7]
31.4
[31.1–31.8]
Quarter 2
(mean [95% CI])
26.0 [25.1–26.9]‡ 62.8
[60.2–65.3]
35.2
[34.7–35.7]
25.6
[25.2–26.1]
31.7
[31.4–32.0]‡
21.2
[20.5–21.9]
62.1
[59.6–64.6]
32.9
[32.5–33.4]‡
30.6
[30.1–31.2]
30.6
[30.3–31.0]‡
Quarter 3
(mean [95% CI])
25.2
[24.4–26.1]‡
62.1
[59.6–64.6]
33.3
[32.8–33.8]‡
25.6
[25.1–26.0]
31.4
[31.1–31.7]‡
20.2
[19.5–20.8]‡
60.2
[57.9–62.6]
32.2
[31.8–32.6]‡
31.1
[30.6–31.5]
30.3
[30.0–30.6]‡
Quarter 4
(mean [95% CI])
25.0
[24.0–25.9]‡
60.7
[57.9–63.4]
33.4
[32.9–33.9]‡
25.2
[24.7–25.6]
31.0
[30.7–31.3]‡†
20.6
[19.9–21.4]‡
60.5
[57.8–63.2]
31.3
[30.8–31.7]‡†
31.0
[30.5–31.6]
29.8
[29.5–30.2]‡†
F-test 106.38* 53.10* 237.40* 10.51* 109.38* 77.7* 56.40* 320.25* 4.34* 104.5*
p-value < 0.001 0.51 < 0.001 0.53 < 0.001 0.001 0.46 < 0.001 0.43 < 0.001
ƒ2 0.01 0.001 0.02 0.001 0.01 0.004 0.001 0.02 0.001 0.01
  1. An analysis of covariance was conducted controlling for BMI z-score, site location, age (whole years) and testing month. Quarter 1 represents children born in January to March, quarter 2 is from April to June, etc. The F-test is shown for the overall corrected model (*p < 0.001). The last two columns, p-value and Cohen’s ƒ2, are for the main effect of relative age in quarters
  2. statistically significant differences between quarter 1 and other quarters
  3. statistically significant differences between quarter 2 and other quarters
  4. CAMSA Canadian Agility and Movement Skill Assessment, CAPL Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy, CI confidence intervals, PACER Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run