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Table 7 Determinants (Coefficients) of Cigarette Consumption and Smoking Intensity

From: Determinants of cigarette smoking and smoking intensity among adult males in Ghana

Explanatory Two-Part Modela Logit Model Negative Binomial Model
Variables (1)b (2)c (3) (4)
Age Category (45–59 years)
 15–29 years −14.002(1.935) *** −0.414(0.180) ** −1.232(0.299) *** −0.416**
 30–44 years −12.939(1.417) *** −0.069(0.139) −0.601(0.238) ** −0.048(0.128)
Education
 Years of education −0.335(0.327) −0.054(0.037) −0.158(0.063) ** −0.066(0.036) *
 Years of education squared 0.029(0.019) 0.005(0.003) * 0.004(0.005) 0.006(0.003) **
Age*Education (Others)
 Old*educated 1.189(1.671) 0.307(0.184) * 0.499(0.341) 0.342(0.170) **
Use of TV (Never)
 Sometimes −0.515(1.344) 0.077(0.128) −0.236(0.192) 0.053(0.113)
Wealth category (Lower)
 Middle −0.081(0.854) 0.209(0.163) 0.114(0.240) 0.172(0.146)
 Higher −0.023(1.280) 0.162(0.205) −1.034(0.332) *** 0.183(0.190)
Religious affiliation (Others)
 Christian −0.275(1.279) 0.051(0.137) −1.265(0.241) *** 0.045(0.122)
 Muslim −0.762(1.228) 0.614(0.141) *** −0.507(0.252) ** 0.548(0.126) ***
Region (Greater Accra)
 Western −0.512(1.001) −0.699(0.336) ** − 0.804(0.521) −0.570(0.277) **
 Central 14.608(1.670) *** −0.278(0.350) −0.533(0.499) − 0.109(0.281)
 Volta 14.528(1.700) *** −0.082(0.362) −0.659(0.525) 0.045(0.304)
 Eastern 0.088(1.179) −0.582(0.328) * −1.002(0.541) * −0.432(0.268)
 Ashanti 14.432(0.841) *** −0.185(0.310) −0.060(0.471) − 0.030(0.252)
 Brong Ahafo 0.673(1.165) −0.066(0.315) −0.407(0.512) 0.052(0.243)
 Northern 14.880(1.121) *** 0.065(0.329) −0.478(0.529) 0.194(0.267)
 Upper East 1.077(0.942) 0.668(0.305) ** −0.280(0.500) 0.730(0.243) ***
 Upper West 15.257(0.975) *** 0.439(0.315) −0.344(0.551) 0.525(0.255) **
 Constant 16.454(1.299) *** 1.322(0.315) *** 0.049(0.467) 1.302(0.250) ***
 Observations 252 252 4385 252
Wald chi2+ 3847.69 (0.000) *** 156.93 (0.000) ***
F-statistic+ 12.89 (0.000) ***
F-adjusted mean residual test+ 0.506 (0. 870)
Pseudo-R2 0.0713
Lnalpha −0.995(0.219) *** 0.307(0.056) ***
Alpha −1.180(0.182) ***
AIC statistic 5.319
  1. Robust standard errors in parentheses. P-values in parentheses for those marked +. Estimation of the separate logit model accounted for the survey design and hence applied linearized standard errors. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1
  2. Source: Computed by authors from GDHS 2014
  3. a Negative Binomial-Logit Hurdle Model
  4. b Logit Model
  5. c Negative Binomial Model