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Table 2 Built and natural environment planning principles and modifiable features associated with improved health-related outcomes

From: Built and natural environment planning principles for promoting health: an umbrella review

Neighbourhood Design
Enhance neighbourhood walkability
  Increase walkability Increased social engagement
S9 (2); S15 (N/R); S16 (1–2)
Increased mobility
S9 (2); S15 (N/R); S16 (1–2)
Increased physical activity
S1 (2); S2 (3); S3 (1–2); S4 (2); S5 (2–3); S6 (N/R); S7 (2); S8 (2); S9 (2); S10 (N/R); S11 (N/R); S12 (N/R); S13 (1); S14 (N/R); S15 (N/R)
  Improve infrastructure to support walking and cycling Increased physical activity
S1 (2); S2 (3); S3 (1–2); S4 (2); S5 (2–3); S6 (N/R); S7 (2); S8 (2); S9 (2); S10 (N/R); S11 (N/R); S12 (N/R); S13 (1); S14 (N/R); S15 (N/R)
Increased mobility among older adults
S9 (2); S15 (N/R); S16 (1–2)
Improved weight status
S17 (N/R); S18 (N/R); S19 (2)
Build complete and compact neighbourhoods
  Compact neighbourhoods Increased physical activity
S4 (2); S9 (2); S14 (N/R); S21 (1–2); S23 (2)
  Increase access to facilities and amenities Increased mobility among older adults
S4 (2); S9 (2); S14 (N/R); S21 (1–2); S23 (2)
Increased social participation among older adults
S27 (N/R)
Improved mental health
S24 (1–2); S25 (1–2); S26 (2–3)
Enhance connectivity with safe and efficient infrastructure
  Improved street connectivity Increased physical activity
S1 (2); S2 (3); S3 (1–2); S4 (2); S5 (2–3); S6 (N/R); S7 (2); S8 (2); S9 (2); S10 (N/R); S11 (N/R); S12 (N/R); S13 (1); S14 (N/R); S15 (N/R)
  Provision of public realm improvements (e.g. provision of street lighting) Increased physical activity
S6 (N/R); S9 (2); S14 (N/R); S112 (1–2)
Reduced fear of crime
S28 (1)
Reduced road traffic collisions
S29 (1); S112 (1–2); S113 (2–3)
Housing
Improve quality of housing
  Increase energy efficient homes Improved general and mental health outcomes (including for those from low-income groups)
S15 (N/R); S25 (1–2); S32 (2); S33 (N/R); S35 (2–3); S36 (2); S42 (N/R)
Reduced mortality
S31 (1–2)
  Remove home hazards Improved social outcomes among older adults
S39 (2); S40 (2); S42 (N/R)
Reduced fall-related injuries among older adults
S39 (2); S40 (2)
Reduced unintentional injury
S41 (1–2); S42 (N/R)
  Home refurbishment/retrofit Improved general health
S25 (1–2); S32 (2); S33 (N/R); S34 (N/R); S36 (2)
Reduced fear of crime
S28 (1)
Increase provision of affordable and diverse housing
  Provision of diverse housing Increased physical activity
S21 (1–2)
  Provision of mixed-use, affordable housing Increased perceptions of safety among low-income groups
S39 (2)
  Provision of affordable rental housing Improved mental health among adolescents and adults
S25 (1–2); S32 (2)
Increase provision of affordable housing for groups with specific needs
  Provision of affordable housing for vulnerable groups Improved social outcomes
S48 (1)
Improved behavioural outcomes
S45 (2); S51 (2)
Improved health-related outcomes
S48 (1); S50 (N/R)
Reduced in substance misuse or co-occurring mental disorders
S45 (2); S51 (2)
Improve psychiatric health outcomes
S45 (2); S51 (2)
Increased quality of life
S45 (2); S51 (2)
  Provision of affordable housing for groups living with chronic conditions Increased engagement with HIV/AIDS services
S43 (2–3); S45 (2); S47 (2)
Reduced engagement in risky sexual behaviours among those with HIV/AIDS
S43 (2–3); S45 (2); S47 (2)
Improved HIV/AIDS outcomes
S43 (2–3)
  Provision of affordable housing for the homeless Increased engagement with healthcare services
S46 (2); S49 (N/R)
Increased quality of life
S46 (2); S49 (N/R)
Increased employment
S44 (1)
Improved mental health
S46 (2); S49 (N/R)
Healthier Food Environment
Increase provision of healthier, affordable food
  Increase access to healthier food Reduced dietary fat intake
S52 (N/R)
Improved dietary behaviour
S52 (N/R); S53 (1–2); S54 (1); S55 (2); S56 (2–3); S57 (2); S58 (N/R)
Increased fruit and vegetable intake
S39 (2); S52 (N/R)
Improved attitudes towards fruit and vegetables
S39 (2); S52 (N/R)
Improved weight status
S61 (N/R); S62 (2); S63 (1)
Healthier food purchasing
S59 (N/R); S60 (2)
Enhance community food infrastructure
  Increase urban food growing Improved attitudes towards healthier eating
S64 (N/R)
Increased opportunities for fruit and vegetable consumption
S9 (2); S64 (N/R)
Increased opportunities for social connectivity
S9 (2); S64 (N/R)
Increased opportunities for physical activity
S9 (2); S64 (N/R)
Natural and Sustainable Environment
Reduce exposure to environmental hazards
  Improve air quality Increased physical activity among older adults
S24 (1–2)
  Reduce exposure to air pollution Reduced risk of chronic conditions
S70 (2); S71 (N/R); S72 (2); S73 (N/R); S74 (1–2); S75 (1–2); S76 (N/R); S77 (N/R); S78 (N/R); S79 (N/R); S80 (2); S81 (N/R); S82 (N/R); S83 (N/R); S84 (2–3); S85 (N/R); S86 (N/R); S87 (N/R); S88 (2–3); S89 (N/R); S90 (N/R); S91 (N/R); S92 (2–3); S93 (1–2); S94 (N/R)
Improved birth outcomes
S15 (N/R); S95 (N/R); S96 (2); S97 (N/R); S98 (N/R); S99 (N/R)
Reduced infant mortality
S98 (N/R)
Improved cognitive function
S100 (N/R)
  Reduce exposure to excessive noise Improved mental health outcomes
S15 (N/R); S24 (1–2); S25 (1–2)
Reduced risk of ischemic heart disease
S101 (N/R)
  Reduce impact of flooding Reduced risk of carbon monoxide poisoning
S102 (N/R)
Improved mental and physical health outcomes
S103 (N/R); S104 (N/R); S105 (N/R)
Increase access to, and engagement with, the natural environment
  Increase access and engagement opportunities Increased physical activity
S9 (2); S21 (N/R); S111 (N/R); S107 (1); S117 (N/R)
Reduced risk of cardiovascular disease
S24 (1–2); S26 (2–3)
Increased motivation to engage in physical activity
S108 (1); S117 (N/R)
Reduced obesity among adolescents
S18 (N/R); S111 (N/R)
Improved mental health outcomes
S24 (1–2); S26 (2–3); S109 (2)
  Aesthetic park improvements Increased first-time park users
S9 (2); S107 (1)
Increased physical activity
S9 (2); S18 (N/R); S107 (1); S111 (N/R)
Adaptation to climate change
  Prioritisation of neighbourhood tree planting Improved health outcomes
S110 (2)
Transport
Provision of active travel infrastructure
  Increase infrastructure for walking and cycling Increased physical activity
S1 (2); S2 (3); S3 (1–2); S4 (2); S5 (2–3); S6 (N/R); S7 (2); S8 (2); S9 (2); S10 (N/R); S11 (N/R); S12 (N/R); S13 (1); S14 (N/R); S15 (N/R)
Increased mobility among
S9 (2); S15 (N/R); S16 (1–2)
Improved weight status
S17 (N/R); S18 (N/R); S19 (2)
Enhance connectivity with safe and efficient infrastructure
  Provision of traffic calming measures Increased physical activity
S6 (N/R); S9 (2); S112 (1–2); S14 (N/R)
Reduced risk of pedestrian injury
S29 (1); S112 (1–2); S113 (2–3)
Reduced risk of road traffic collision
S29 (1); S112 (1–2); S113 (2–3); S114 (2); S115 (N/R); S116 (1–2)
Increased pedestrian activity
S112 (1–2)
  Provision of public realm improvements (e.g. provision of street lighting) Increased physical activity
S6 (N/R); S9 (2); S14 (N/R); S24 (1–2); S112 (1–2)
Reduced fear of crime
S28 (1)
Reduced road traffic collisions
S29 (1); S112 (1–2); S113 (2–3)
Prioritise public transport
  Promote public transport use Increased physical activity
S111 (N/R)
Improved cardiovascular outcomes
S19 (2)
Reduced fear of social isolation
S15 (N/R)
Improved mental health
S15 (N/R)
Enable mobility for all ages and activities
  Increase access to recreational space Improved pedestrian safety among adolescents
S112 (1–2)
Improved mental health
S25 (1–2); S26 (2–3)
  1. Note. S1–117 = Review-level evidence included in this review. See Additional files 1, 2 and 3 for full reference list. () = Quality of original empirical studies included within review-level evidence, as assigned by review authors. 1 = Low quality, 2 = Moderate quality, 3 = High quality, N/R = Not reported by authors of review