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Table 3 Articles selected for review of ERS effects on (3) MSK disorders

From: The effects of exercise referral schemes in the United Kingdom in those with cardiovascular, mental health, and musculoskeletal disorders: a preliminary systematic review

Study Design Comparison Time points N, age (mean, SD) Disorder Length (weeks) Prescription Measures Effect Outcomes
Hillsdon, et al. 2002 [49] RCT, Quantitative ERS vs. no intervention Baseline
12 months
N = 1658 45–64 years
Mean = n/a
SD = n/a
Musculoskeletal 12 1-to-1 exercise sessions, weekly Self-reported PA MLTAQ BMI (kg/m2) Systolic BP (mmHg) Diastolic BP (mmHg) 124, p = 0.39

p = 0.86
p = 0.81
Intention to treat analysis revealed no significant differences in PA between groups. Community-based PA ERS have some impact on reducing sedentary behaviour in the short-term, but unlikely to be sustained and lead to benefits in terms of health.
James, et al 2009 [50] Observational cohort study Quantitative Population based analysis Completion N = 1315 Under 50 = 539 Over 50 = 776
Mean = n/a
SD = n/a
Musculoskeletal 26 1-to-1 and group exercise sessions BMI (kg/m2) BP(mmHg) 1.292 p = 0.043
Completers demonstrated an increased likelihood of reduced BP. Participants who achieved a reduction in body mass had an increased likelihood of achieving reduced BP. Completion is associated with reduced body mass and BP.
Tobi, et al. 2012 [43] Retrospective, Quantitative Adherers vs. non-adherers 13 weeks Completion N = 701
Mean = 46.4
SD = 13.85
Musculoskeletal (orthopaedic n = 164) Cardiovascular (n = 111) Mental health (n = 141) Respiratory (n = 34) Other (n = 23) Metabolic (n = 228) 20–26 1-to-1, aerobic and resistance exercise, 1–2 x weekly Adherence (DV) BMI (kg/m2) BP (mmHg) b **
Longer term schemes increased adherence. Longer-term adherence was found for increasing age and medical condition. For every 10-year increase in age, the odds of people continuing exercise increased by 21.8%. Participants referred with metabolic conditions were more likely to adhere than those with orthopaedic, CV and other disorders. Longer-term schemes offer the opportunity to maintain adherence to exercise.
  1. CVD cardiovascular disease, CHD coronary heart disease, IMD index of multiple deprivation, MLTAQ Minnesota leisure time activity questionnaire, 7D PAR 7-day physical activity recall scale, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, HADS hospital anxiety and depression scale, EQ-5D EuroQol 5 dimension, GLTEQ Godin leisure-time exercise questionnaire, BREQ-behavioural regulation in exercise questionnaire, SVS subjective vitality scale, IOCQ important other climate questionnaire
  2. = reductions in scores, = increase in scores, no change
  3. aall comparisons are with baseline value
  4. ball comparisons are with control
  5. -not available in the results
  6. ***p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0