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Table 1 Overview of 98 systematic reviews on stigma and HIV/AIDS, mental illness, and physical disability

From: Stigma and intersectionality: a systematic review of systematic reviews across HIV/AIDS, mental illness, and physical disability

Author(s), publication year Title of paper Type(s) of systematic review Number of primary studies included in the review Geographic location(s) of the primary studies
Mental illness
 Abiri et al. (2016) [32] Stigma related avoidance in people living with Severe Mental Illness (SMI): Findings of an integrative review Integrative review 21 Africa, Asia, Middle East, Western Europe
 Ali et al. (2017) [33] Perceived barriers and facilitators towards help-seeking for eating disorders: A systematic review integrative review 13 USA, Australia, Norway, UK, Germany
 Ando et al. (2013) [34] Review of mental-health-related stigma in Japan integrative Review 19 Japan
 Ando et al. (2011) [35] The simulation of hallucinations to reduce the stigma of schizophrenia: A systematic review meta-ethnography 11 USA, Australia, Canada
 Angermeyer et al. (2011) [36] Biogenetic explanations and public acceptance of mental illness: Systematic review of population studies quantitative systematic review with no assessment of methodological quality 33 North America, Asia, South America, Africa, Australia
 Boyd et al. (2014) [37] Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale: A multinational review. quantitative systematic review with no assessment of methodological quality 81 USA
 Brohan et al. (2010) [38] Experiences of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination: A review of measures quantitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality 57 Not available
 Castaldelli-Maia et al. (2011) [39] Perceptions of and attitudes toward antidepressant quantitative systematic review with no assessment of methodological quality 32 USA, UK
 Clarke et al. (2014) [40] Emergency department staff attitudes towards mental health consumers: A literature review and thematic content analysis integrative review 42 USA, UK, Canada, Australia, Ireland, Sweden, Finland, China, New Zealand
 Clement et al. (2015) [41] What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies integrative review 144 USA, Canada, Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Asia, South America
 Clement et al. (2013) [42] Mass media interventions for reducing mental health-related stigma COCHRANE quantitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality 22 Not available
 Corrigan et al. (2015) [43] Do the effects of antistigma programs persist over time? Findings from a meta-analysis meta-analysis 72 Not available
 Corrigan et al. (2012) [44] Challenging the public stigma of mental illness: A meta-analysis of outcome studies meta-analysis 72 Europe, North America, South America, Asia, Australia.
 Dalky (2012) [45] Mental illness stigma reduction interventions: Review of intervention trials quantitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality 14 Not available
 de Mendonca Lima & Lopes (2012) [46] Systematic review on origin of stigma and discrimination against old persons with mental disorders integrative review 59 Not available
 Doley et al. (2017) [47] Interventions to reduce the stigma of eating disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis quantitative systematic review with no assessment of methodological quality and meta-analysis 18 Australia, US, UK, Indonesia
 Edwards et al. (2015) [48] What do we know about the risks for young people moving into, through and out of inpatient mental health care? Findings from an evidence synthesis integrative review 40 USA, UK, Finland, Canada, Norway
 Ellison et al. (2013) [49] Bipolar disorder and stigma: A systematic review of the literature integrative review 25 Public Stigma: UK, Germany, USA, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Canada, Japan, Singapore, Pakistan. Internalized/Affiliative stigma: USA, Canada, Australia, Turkey, UK, South America
 Evans-Lacko et al. (2014) [50] The state of the art in European research on reducing social exclusion and stigma related to mental health: A systematic mapping of the literature integrative review 97 UK, Finland, Sweden, Germany
 Firmin et al. (2016) [51] Stigma resistance is positively associated with psychiatric and psychosocial outcomes: A meta-analysis meta-analysis 48 Not available
 Gerlinger et al. (2013) [52] Personal stigma in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a systematic review of prevalence rates, correlates, impact and interventions quantitative systematic review with no assessment of methodological quality 54 USA, Europe, North America, Australia, Asia
 Griffiths et al. (2014) [53] Effectiveness of programs for reducing the stigma associated with mental disorders. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials meta-analysis 34 USA, Australia, Hong Kong, Finland, Russia, Turkey
 Guruge et al. (2017) [18] Knowing so much, yet knowing so little: A scoping review of interventions that address the stigma of mental illness in the Canadian context integrative review 36 Canada
 Hanisch et al. (2016) [54] The effectiveness of interventions targeting the stigma of mental illness at the workplace: A systematic review quantitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality 16 Europe, US or Canada, Australia, Asia
 Haugen et al. (2017) [55] Mental health stigma and barriers to mental health care for first responders: A systematic review and meta-analysis quantitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality and meta-analysis 12 United States, Ireland, Canada
 Hawke et al. (2013) [56] Stigma and bipolar disorder: A review of the literature integrative review 32 Not available
 Janouskova et al. (2017) [57] Can video interventions be used to effectively destigmatize mental illness among young people? A systematic review quantitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality 23 US, Europe, China, Australia
 Jorm (2012) [58] Belief in the dangerousness of people with mental disorders: A review integrative review 125 Japan, Germany, Australia, Canada, Turkey, Spain, Nigeria, India, Brazil, Singapore, USA
 Kaushik et al.& Kyriakopoulos (2016) [59] The stigma of mental illness in children and adolescents: A systematic review integrative review 42 USA, United Kingdom, Ireland, Israel, Australia, Iran, Canada, Greece, Japan.
 Kvaale et al. (2013) [60] Biogenetic explanations and stigma: A meta-analytic review of associations among laypeople meta-analysis 25 Not available
 Kvaale et al. (2013) [61] The ‘side effects’ of medicalization: A meta-analytic review of how biogenetic explanations affect stigma meta-analysis 28 Not available
 Livingston & Boyd. (2010) [30] Correlates and consequences of internalized stigma for people living with mental illness: A systematic review and meta-analysis meta-analysis 127 Not available
 Mak et al. (2007) [62] Meta-analysis of stigma and mental health meta-analysis 49 North America, Europe, Australia, Asia
 Malachowski & Kirsh (2013) [63] Workplace antistigma initiatives: A scoping study scoping review 22 Australia, Canada, UK, USA
 Mascayano et al. (2016) [63] Stigma toward mental illness in Latin America and the Caribbean: A systematic review integrative review 26 Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Jamaica, Colombia, Peru, Chile
 McPherson & Armstrong (2012) [64] General practitioner management of depression: a systematic review qualitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality 13 UK, Sweden, Canada
 Mehta et al. (2015) [65] Evidence for effective interventions to reduce mental health-related stigma and discrimination in the medium and long term: Systematic review quantitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality 80 USA, Canada, Australia, UK, New Zealand, Italy, Japan, Norway, Finland, Greece, Hong Kong, Germany, Turkey, Serbia, China, India
 Mestdagh & Hansen (2014) [66] Stigma in patients with schizophrenia receiving community mental health care: a review of qualitative studies meta-ethnography 18 UK, USA, Europe, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Malaysia
 Milton & Mullan (2014) [67] Diagnosis telling in people with psychosis integrative review 14 Not available
 Mittal et al. (2012) [68] Empirical studies of self-stigma reduction strategies: A critical review of the literature quantitative systematic review with no assessment of methodological quality 14 USA, Canada, Australia, UK, Finland, China
 Mueller et al. (2016) [69] Communications to children about mental illness and their role in stigma development: An integrative review integrative review 15 UK, Finland, Ireland, Canada, USA, Australia, New Zealand, Spain
 Parcesepe & Cabassa et al. (2013) [70] Public stigma of mental illness in the United States: A systematic literature review quantitative systematic review with no assessment of methodological quality 36 USA
 Putman (2008) [71] Mental illness: Diagnostic title or derogatory term? (Attitudes towards mental illness) Developing a learning resource for use within a clinical call centre. A systematic literature review on attitudes towards mental illness integrative review 31 Not available
 Read et al. (2006) [72] Prejudice and schizophrenia: a review of the ‘mental illness is an illness like any other’ approach quantitative systematic review with no assessment of methodological quality n/a USA, England, Australia, Japan, South Africa, Ireland, India, Turkey, Malaysia, China, Italy, Ethiopia, Greece, Russia, and Mongolia
 Schnyder et al. (2017) [73] Association between mental health-related stigma and active help-seeking: Systematic review and meta-analysis quantitative systematic review with no assessment of methodological quality and meta-analysis 27 Not available
 Schomerus et al. (2012) [74] Evolution of public attitudes about mental illness: A systematic review and meta-analysis meta-analysis 33 Not available
 Seroalo et al. (2014) [2] A critical synthesis of interventions to reduce stigma attached to mental illness critical synthesis 17 Hong Kong, USA, Russia, Britain, Germany, Sweden, Turkey
 Sharac et al. (2010) [3] The economic impact of mental health stigma and discrimination: A systematic review integrative review 30 USA, Germany, Hong Kong, Canada, New Zealand, Israel, UK
 Sharp et al. (2015) [75] Stigma as a barrier to seeking health care among military personnel with mental health problems quantitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality 20 USA, UK, Canada
 Stubbs (2014) [76] Reducing mental illness stigma in health care students and professionals: A review of the literature quantitative systematic review with no assessment of methodological quality 18 Not available
 Thornicroft et al. (2016) [77] Evidence for effective interventions to reduce mental-health-related stigma and discrimination quantitative systematic review with no assessment of methodological quality 89 Not available
 Tsang et al. (2016) [78] Therapeutic intervention for internalized stigma of severe mental illness: A systematic review and meta-analysis quantitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality and meta-analysis 14 US, Canada, Turkey, Hong Kong, Israel, Switzerland, Austria, Netherlands, Japan
 Tzouvara & Nyblade. (2016) [79] Systematic review of the prevalence of mental illness stigma within the Greek culture quantitative systematic review with no assessment of methodological quality 18 Greece, United Kingdom, Australia, Cyprus
 Wittkowski et al. (2014) [80] Exploring psychosis and bipolar disorder in women: A critical review of the qualitative literature meta-ethnography 13 USA, Canada, UK, Japan
 Wood et al. (2016) [81] Psychosocial interventions for internalised stigma in people with a schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis: A systematic narrative synthesis and meta-analysis    
 Xu et al. (2017) [82] Challenging mental health related stigma in China: Systematic review and meta-analysis. I. Interventions among the general public quantitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality and meta-analysis 9 China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Macau
 Yamaguchi et al. (2011) [83] Strategies and future attempts to reduce stigmatization and increase awareness of mental health problems among young people: A narrative review of educational interventions quantitative systematic review with no assessment of methodological quality 40 Not available
 Yamaguchi et al. (2013) [84] Effects of short-term interventions to reduce mental health–related stigma in university or college students: A systematic review quantitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality 35 USA, Taiwan, UK, Japan, Turkey, Germany
 Yamaguchi et al. (2017) [85] Associations between renaming schizophrenia and stigma-related outcomes: A systematic review quantitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality 23 Japan, South Korea, UK, China, Canada, Ireland, Turkey
 Yang et al. (2014) [86] Recent advances in cross-cultural measurement in psychiatric epidemiology: Utilizing ‘what matters most’ to identify culture-specific aspects of stigma integrative review 196 USA, Asia/Pacific Islands, Middle East, Africa, Western Europe
HIV/AIDS
 Bharat (2011) [17] A systematic review of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in India: Current understanding and future needs integrative review 30 India
 Campbell et al. (2011) [87] Creating social spaces to tackle AIDS-related stigma: Reviewing the role of church groups in sub-Saharan Africa integrative review 36 Kenya, South Africa, Uganda, Nigeria, Tanzania, Burkina Faso, East Africa, Ghana, Ethiopia, Malawi, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Botswana, Senegal, DR Congo,
 Columbini et al. (2014) [88] Factors affecting adherence to short-course ARV prophylaxis for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: A review and lessons for future elimination quantitative systematic review with no assessment of methodological quality 14 South Africa, Ethiopia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Rwanda, Kenya
 Dao et al. (2013) [89] Social science research on HIV in Vietnam: A critical review and future directions qualitative systematic review with no assessment of methodological quality and mixed methods review 64 Vietnam
 Darlington & Hutson (2017) [26] Understanding HIV-related stigma among women in the southern United States: A literature review integrative review 27 United States
 Earnshaw & Chaudoir (2009) [19] From conceptualizing to measuring HIV stigma: A review of HIV stigma mechanism measures quantitative systematic review with no assessment of methodological quality 23 USA, South Africa, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, India, China
 Florom-Smith et al. (2012) [90] Exploring the concept of HIV-related stigma integrative review 21 USA
 Gesesew et al. (2017) [91] Significant association between perceived HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV/AIDS care in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis quantitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality and meta-analysis 10 Ethiopia, Venezuala, Mexico, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Kenya
 Ho & Holloway. (2015) [92] The impact of HIV-related stigma on the lives of HIV-positive women: An integrated literature review integrative review 26 USA, South Africa, Canada, UK, Tanzania, Peru, Vietnam, Kenya, New Zealand, Thailand, India
 Katz et al. (2013) [93] Impact of HIV-related stigma on treatment adherence: Systematic review and meta-synthesis integrative review 75 Not available
 Kerrigan et al. (2015) [16] A community empowerment approach to the HIV response among sex workers: Effectiveness, challenges, and considerations for implementation and scale-up meta-analysis. 22 India, Brazil, Dominican Republic
 Logie & Gadalla (2009) [94] Meta-analysis of health and demographic correlates of stigma towards people living with HIV meta-analysis 24 North America
 Lorenc et al. 2011 [95] HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM): systematic review of qualitative evidence qualitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality 17 USA, UK, Canada
 Loutfy et al. (2015) [21] Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women quantitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality 5 USA
 Lowther et al. (2014) [4] Experience of persistent psychological symptoms and perceived stigma among people with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART): A systematic review quantitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality 66 USA, France, Italy, Australia, Canada, Spain, Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden, South Africa, India, Nigeria, Botswana, Brazil, Thailand, Uganda, Cameroon, China, Gambia, Jamaica, Rwanda, Senegal, Vietnam, Zambia
 Mahajan et al. (2008) [96] Stigma in the HIV/AIDS epidemic: a review of the literature and recommendations for the way forward integrative review 390 North America, Western Europe
 Mak et al. (2017) [97] Meta-analysis and systematic review of studies on the effectiveness of HIV stigma reduction programs qualitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality and meta-analysis m- 42. q s- 35 USA, Africa, Europe, Asia
 Maulsby et al. (2014) [27] HIV among Black Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) in the United States: A review of the literature integrative review 39 USA
 McAteer et al. (2017) [98] A systematic review of measures of HIV/AIDS stigma in paediatric HIV-infected and HIV-affected populations qualitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality 22 United States, Africa, Asia, Sweden
 Mills et al. (2006) [99] Barriers to participation in HIV drug trials: A systematic review integrative review 14 USA, EU, Australia, France, UK
 Monjok et al. (2009) [100] HIV/AIDS - related stigma and discrimination in Nigeria: Review of research Studies and future directions for prevention integrative review 8 Nigeria
 Monteiro et al. (2013) [22] The interaction between axes of inequality in studies on discrimination, stigma and HIV/AIDS: Contributions to the recent international literature integrative review 42 Jamaica, USA, Nepal, Uganda, India, Puerto Rico, England, Mexico, Guatemala, Trinidad and Tobago, Bangladesh, Kenya, South Korea, Dominican Republic, Malawi, China, Tanzania, South Africa, Canada
 Monteiro et al. (2012) [101] Discrimination, stigma, and AIDS: A review of academic literature produced in Brazil (2005–2010) meta-ethnography and mixed methods review 163 Brazil
 Paudel & Baral (2015) [102] Women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA), battling stigma, discrimination and denial and the role of support groups as a coping strategy: a review of literature meta-ethnography 7 Canada, India, Uganda, Australia, Tanzania, United States of America, Thailand
 Prost et al. (2008) [103] Social, behavioural, and intervention research among people of sub-Saharan African origin living with HIV in the UK and Europe: Literature review and recommendations for intervention integrative review 138 Europe
 Roger et al. (2013) [104] Social aspects of HIV/AIDS and aging: A thematic review integrative review 62 Canada
 Sandelowski et al. (2009) [23] Gender, race/ethnicity, and social class in research reports on stigma in HIV-positive women meta-study 32 USA
 Sengupta et al. (2011) [105] HIV interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma: A systematic review quantitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality 19 North America, Europe, Asia, Africa
 Smith et al. (2008) [106] A meta-analysis of disclosure of one’s HIV-positive status, stigma and social support meta-analysis 21 USA, UK, South Africa, India.
 Stangl et al. (2013) [15] A systematic review of interventions to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination from 2002 to 2013: How far have we come? integrative review 48 Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Zambia, China, India, Uganda, Chile, Ethiopia, Australia, China, Ghana, Nigeria, Malawi, Hong Kong, Angola, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Kenya, Haiti, Peru, Thailand, USA, Swaziland, Tanzania, Vietnam Canada
 Sweeney & Vanable (2016) [107] The association of HIV-related stigma to HIV medication adherence: A systematic review and synthesis of the literature quantitative systematic review with no assessment of methodological quality 38 USA, South Africa, Kenya, India, Thailand, China, Tanzania, Hong Kong, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Zambia, Nigeria, France, The Netherlands
 Talley & Bettencourt (2010) [108] A relationship-oriented model of HIV-related stigma derived from a review of the HIV-affected couples literature integrative review 13 Thailand, India, USA
 Turan & Nyblade (2013) [79] HIV-related stigma as a barrier to achievement of global PMTCT and maternal health goals: A review of the evidence integrative review 150 Not available
 Weihs & Meyer-Weitz (2016) [109] Barriers to workplace HIV testing in South Africa: A systematic review of the literature Integrative review 4 South Africa
Physical disability
 Boyles et al. (2008) [14] Representations of disability in nursing and healthcare literature: an integrative review integrative review 65 Not available
 Wilson et al. (2013) [110] Attitudes towards individuals with disabilities as measured by the Implicit Association Test: A literature review quantitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality 17 USA, China, Italy, UK, Germany, France
 Zeldenryk et al. (2011) [111] The emerging story of disability associated with lymphatic filariasis: A critical review qualitative systematic review with assessment of methodological quality 16 Ghana, India, Haiti, Sri Lanka, Dominican Republic
Combination papers
 Van Bakel (2007) [13] Measuring health-related stigma- a literature review quantitative systematic review with no assessment of methodological quality 63 Most instruments developed for use in the USA