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Table 2 Results of pattern matching between expected and observed environmental correlates with alcohol-related outcomes

From: An exploratory case study of environmental factors related to military alcohol misuse

Environmental correlate Pattern
Expected Observed
  Clinical outcome Medical outcome Interpersonal outcome Legal outcome
On-base
 Sociodemographic factors
  Region (OCONUS) + +− +−
  Age +− +−
  % junior enlisted + +−
  % single + +−
 Environmental risk factors
  $ spent on open sales + +− +−
  $ spent on closed sales + +− +−
  Density of stores selling alcohol + +− +− +− +−
  Density of bars/restaurants serving + +− +− +−
  Density of alternative activities with alcohol + +− +− +− +−
 Environmental protective factors
  Density of all alternative activities + + +− +−
  Density of alcohol-free activities +− +− +− +−
  Density of schools, parks, etc. + + +− +−
  Driving restrictions for low ranks +− +− +−
Off-base
 Sociodemographic factors
  Household income +− + +
  Unemployment rate + +− +−
  Crime rate + +− +−
 Environmental risk factors
  Density of stores selling alcohol + +− +− +−
  Density of bars/restaurants serving + +− +− +−
  Density of alternative activities with alcohol + +− +− +−
 Environmental protective factors
  Density of all alternative activities +− +− + +−
  Density of alcohol-free activities +− +− +− +−
  Density of schools, parks, etc. + +−
  Neighborhood walkability +− +− +− +
  1. Abbreviations: OCONUS Outside the continental United States
  2. + positive association, + − neutral/no association, inverse association