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Table 4 Factors associated with patients’, health system’s and total delay for treatment of TB patients, Dessie city and surroundings, bivariate and multivariate analysis, 2016

From: Factors associated with treatment delay among newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients in Dessie city and surroundings, Northern Central Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Patient delay > 30 days Health System delay > 6 days Total delay > 36 days
COR (95% CI) AOR(95% CI) COR (95% CI) AOR(95% CI) COR (95% CI) AOR(95% CI
Sex
 Male 1   1   1  
 Female 1.2(0.8–1.8) _ 0.6(0.42–0.98)• _ 1.1(0.7–1.6) _
Residence
 Urban 1   1   1  
 Rural 1.7(1.1–2.7)• 1.58(0.95–2.62) 1.3(0.8–2.0) _ 1.5(0.9–2.3)* _
Age (years)
 18–25 1   1   1  
 26–44 1.4(0.8–2.3) 1.7(0.93–3.06) 0.8(0.5–1.3) _ 1.1(0.7–1.8) _
 45–54 1.3(0.6–2.6) 1.4(0.62–3.25) 0.7(0.3–1.4) _ 0.7(0.4–1.5) _
  ≥ 55 2.5(1.3–4.6)• 2.7(1.27–5.83)• 0.7(0.3–1.3) _ 1.84(0.99–3.45)* _
Education
 Illiterate 1.5(0.8–3.2) _ 0.5(0.2–1.0)* 0.42(0.20–0.92)• 1.5(0.7–3.1) _
 Grade 1–8 1.1(0.6–2.3) _ 0.5(0.2–0.9)• 0.38(0.18–0.81)• 1.3(0.7–2.6) _
 Grade 9–12 0.8(0.4–1.7) _ 0.6(0.3–1.2)* 0.59(0.27–1.31) 0.9(0.4–1.8) _
 College &above 1   1 1 1  
Occupation
 farming 1.3(0.8–2.4) _ 1.1(0.62–1.97) _ 1.75(0.99–3.08)* _
 business 0.7(0.3–1.3) _ 0.5(0.21–0.96)• _ 0.8(0.3–1.5) _
 student 0.6(0.3–1.3)   1.4(0.7–2.8) _ 0.98(0.49–1.97) _
 unemployed 0.7(0.4–1.4) _ 0.9(0.4–1.7) _ 0.9(0.5–1.7) _
 employed 1   1   1  
Marital status
 married 1 1 1   1  
 never married 0.8(0.5–1.2) 1.3(0.7–2.2) 1.0(0.7–1.6) _ 0.7(0.5–1.1)* _
 widow/divorce 0.3(0.1–0.7)• 0.3(0.1–0.8)• 0.5(0.2–1.2)* _ 0.4(0.2–0.8)• _
Family size
 1 to 3 1   1   1 1
  > 3 1.6(1.1–2.4)• 1.6(1.02–2.5)• 1.3(0.8–1.9) _ 1.9(1.3–2.9)• 1.7(1.1–2.8)•
Self-treatment
 No 1 1 1   1 1
 Yes 2.8(1.6–5.0)• 3.0(1.3–5.6)• 1.0(0.6–1.9) _ 2.97(1.62–5.47)• 2.03(1.001–4)†
Use nonprescribed drugs
 No 1   1   1  
 Yes 1.9(0.95–3.92)* _ 0.8(0.4–1.6) _ 1.7(0.8–3.4)* _
One way walking time
  ≤ 30 min 1   1   1 1
  > 30 min 1.7(1.1–2.6)• _ 1.6(1.1–2.5)• _ 2.2(1.5--3.4)• 1.5(0.92–2.52)
TB category
 SPPTB 1   1   1 1
 SNPTB 1.8(1.01–3.06)• 2.3(1.25–4.21)• 0.99(0.6–1.7) _ 1.4(0.8–2.4) 2.1(1.08–4.08)•
 EPTB 1.98(1.2–3.4)• 2.3(1.28–4.07)• 1.1(0.6–1.9) _ 2.3(1.3–3.8)• 3.2(1.62–6.19)•
Previous exposure to TB patient
 Yes 1.8(0.9–3.5)* _ 1.5(0.8–2.9) _ 1.7(0.9–3.3)* _
 No 1   1   1  
HIV sero-status
 positive 0.8(0.45–1.27) _ 0.7(0.39–1.16) _ 0.8(0.50–1.36) _
 negative 1   1   1  
Initially visited health facilities
 Government    1   1 1
 Private    1.4(0.82–2.25) _ 0.6(0.33–0.91)• 0.5(0.26–0.99)•
Type of lab diagnosis
 Microscopy    1 1 1 1
 Chest X-ray    0.3(0.2–0.6)• 0.32(0.16–0.68)• 1.2(0.6–2.3) 1.18(0.5–2.8)
 Microscopy & chest X-ray    0.8(0.4–1.4) 0.56(0.29–1.06) 2.95(1.57–5.53)• 2.5(1.17–5.36)•
 Gene-Xpert    1.5(0.7–3.5) 1.21(0.49–2.93) 5.69(2.27–14.28)• 4.4(1.5–13.5)•
Initially visited HCP
 Internist    1 1 1 1
 General practitioners    2.2(1.3–3.7)• 2.57(1.4–4.6)• 5.6(3.2–9.9)• 4.4(2.2–8.6)•
 Nurse/health officer   1.6(0.90–2.9)* 1.58(0.84–2.95) 4.3(2.4–7.8)• 3.2(1.5–6.6)•
Health care contacts
 Single    1   1  
 Multiple    2.1(1.3–3.2)• 2.12(1.30–3.46)• 1.9(1.3–2.9)• 2.4(1.4–4.1)•
  1. p < 0.05; *p ≤ 0.2; †p = 0.050
  2. HCP health care providers, SPPTB smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis, SNPTB smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis, EPTB extrapulmonary tuberculosis