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Table 3 Distribution of diagnostic delay by socio-demographic, clinical variables and health seeking trajectories, nonparametric (Mann–Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis) test

From: Factors associated with treatment delay among newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients in Dessie city and surroundings, Northern Central Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Patient delay Health System delay Total delay
Median (IQR) p-value Median (IQR) p-value Median (IQR) p-value
Total 30(15,60)   6(4,8)   36(24,64)  
Delayed, n (%) 157(41.1)   134(35.1)   181(47.4)  
Sex
 Male 30(15,60) 0.771 6(4,8) 0.063 35(22.5,64) 0.899
 Female 30(15,60)   6(4,7)   36(24.5,63)  
Residence
 Urban 30(15,50) 0.025 5(4,7) 0.009 35(21,58) 0.008
 Rural 31(20,60)   6(5,9)   40(28,65)  
Age (years)
 18–25 30 (15,45)   6(4,8)   34(21,53)  
 26–44 30 (15,60) 0.109 6(4,7) 0.704 36(26,64) 0.157
 45–54 30 (15,52.5)   6(5,7)   34.5(20,57.5)  
  ≥ 55 40 (20,60)   6(4,7)   49(26.5,65)  
Education
 Illiterate 30(15,60) 0.231 6(4,7) 0.070 39 (25,64) 0.362
 grade 1–8 30(15,60)   6(4,7)   36 (25,63)  
 grade 9–12 30(15,45)   6(4,8)   35 (21.5,50)  
 college &above 23.5(15,45)   6.5(5,9)   30.5 (22.5,59.3)  
Occupation
 farming 32.5(20.25,60) 0.033 6(4.25,9) 0.070 45(28,68) 0.010
 business 30(15,45)   5(4,6)   34(21,56)  
 student 30(15,40)   6(5,8)   35(21,44.75)  
 unemployed 30(15,45)   6(4,7)   34.5(21,49)  
 employed 30(15,60)   6(4,8)   35(22.5,64)  
Marital status
 married 30(15,60) 0.015 6(4,7) 0.069 37(25,64) 0.006
 never married 30(15,60)   5(4,8)   35(24,64)  
 widowed/divorced 18(15,30)   5(4,6)   26(19,40.25)  
Family size
 1 to 3 30(15,57.5) 0.011 6(4,7) 0.076 34(21,60.5) 0.002
  > 3 30(20,60)   6(5,8)   40(27.75,60)  
Self-medication
 No 30(15,47.75) 0.000 6(4,8) 0.990 35(22,56.25) 0.000
 Yes 50(30,60)   6(4,8)   56(34.25,70.75)  
Use of non-prescribed drugs
 No 30(15,60) 0.005 6(4,8) 0.073 35(22,63) 0.006
 Yes 37.5(30,62.5)   5(4,7)   44(34,72.75)  
One way walking time
  ≤ 30 min 30(15,60) 0.004 5(4,7) 0.001 34(20.75,63) 0.000
  > 30 min 30(20,60)   6(5,8)   40.5(28.25,64)  
TB category
 SPPTB 30(15,40) 0.145 6(5,7) 0.843 34(24.25,48) 0.037
 SNPTB 30(15,60)   5.5(4,7)   35(21,64)  
 EPTB 30(15,60)   6(4,8)   41.5(27.75,64)  
Previous exposure to TB patient
 Yes 34(19,60) 0.049 6(4,8) 0.539 45(27,68) 0.043
 No 30(15,58)   6(4,8)   35(23,63)  
HIV serostatus
 positive 30(15,45) 0.287 5(4,7.25) 0.129 34.5(21,54.5) 0.197
 Negative 30(15,60)   6(4,8)   36(25,64  
Initially visited health facilities
 Government    6(4,7) 0.079 37(26,64) 0.041
 Private    6(5,8)   30(21,57.5)  
Diagnostic tests
 microscopy    6(4,9) 0.000 29(20,41) 0.000
 Chest X-ray    5(4,6)   30(19,49)  
 microscopy and chest X-ray   6(5,8)   39(28,65)  
 Gene-Xpert    7(5,12)   52(30,67)  
Initially visited HCP
 Internist    5(4,6.75) 0.104 21.5(19,35) 0.000
 General practitioners    6(4,8)   41(29,65)  
Nurse/health officer    6(4,7)   42(29,65)  
Health care contacts
 Single    5(4,7) 0.003 33(21,46.5) 0.000
 Multiple    6(5,8)   38(26,65)  
  1. HCP health care providers, IQR interquartile range, SPPTB smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis, SNPTB smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis, EPTB extrapulmonary tuberculosis
  2. Statistically significant value are in bold