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Table 2 Drugs local poultry care providers dispensed for backyard poultry in two study villages, Bangladesh, 2009

From: Where backyard poultry raisers seek care for sick poultry: implications for avian influenza prevention in Bangladesh

Trade name Generic name Signs/diseases for which dispensed by local care providers Recommended usage (reference) Quotes by local care providers
Renamycin Oxytetracycline Cholera, lime-like defecation (whitish diarrhea), liquid defecation, bloody defecation, drowsiness, Newcastle Disease, fever, cold (i.e., a respiratory illness), duck paralysis (i.e., botulism), pneumonia, weakness, loss of appetite, pox in eyes, coughing Salmonellosis, Colibacillosis, Infectious Coryza, Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD) or Air Sac Disease, Fowl Cholera (Pasteurella multocida), Necrotic Enteritis, Coccidiosis [29] “Whatever the problem may be, if they (i.e., raisers) come to us, we first give renamycin. Antibiotics for any disease, be it cold, cough or fever... If someone hits the chicken in its leg and it is injured, painkiller works faster with renamycin. Antibiotic is a must.”
“In 80% of poultry disease, tetracycline tablet like renamycin is given.”
“If a raiser tells me that a chicken has fever and the chicken is big, I suggest giving a Histacin tablet, half of a Napa tablet and one fourth of a renamycin tablet. I advise to push the three medicines down the chicken’s throat with a finger and then feed them some water.”
“Tetracycline starts from 250 mg for humans. Animals and birds have to be given 500 mg from the very beginning.”
“These drugs (he indicted drugs at his store) are mainly for cattle, not for poultry. However, drug companies have printed picture of cattle, poultry, all animals on the containers, which implies it can be used for all.”
Dox-A vet Doxycycline Cholera, drowsiness, lime-like defecation, Newcastle Disease, fever, cold, duck paralysis, sneezing, coughing, pox in the eyes and face, loose stool Chronic respiratory disease (CRD) and mycoplasmosis [29]
Ciprofloxacin Ciprofloxacin Drowsiness, lime-like defecation, loose stool, Respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections [29]
Histacin Chlorphenamine Maleate Cholera, fever, cold Acute inflammatory and allergic conditions, or febrile illness [30]
Napa/ Paracetamol Acetaminophen Fever, cold Fever and hyperthermia and infectious diseases [30]
Vitamin B2/B complex Riboflavin Weakness, paralysis, loss of appetite, edema, decreased egg laying Vitamin B2 deficiency diseases including curled-toe, paralyzed legs, weakness, slow growth, affected egg production, diarrhea, atrophied and flabby muscles, dry and harsh skin, marked enlargement of the sciatic and brachial nerve sheaths [48]
Metro-vet Metronidazole Loose stool Protozoan and gram negative anaerobic bacterial infection [30]
Sandocal P Calcium supplements Soft, thin or missing eggshell Calcium deficiency including soft or no shell eggs [48]
Cosomix plus/ ESB3 Sulfachloropyridazine Liquid defecation, bloody defecation Coccidiosis, colibacillosis, salpingitis, paratyphoid infection, staphylococcal infections, fowl cholera, infectious coryza [30]
A-Fenac Vet Diclofenac Sodium Lime defecation, pox and insect in eyes Non-steriod Anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) [30]
Hista vet Pheniramine Maleate Cold Acute inflammatory and allergic conditions, or febrile illness [30]
Diadin Sulphadimidine Sore Coccidiosis and coryza [30]
Cotrim vet Cotimoxazole (Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim) Bloody defecation, lime-like defecation, liquid defecation Coccidiosis, salmonellosis, colibacillosis [30]