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Table 1 Overview of the instruments and scales implemented in the NutriAct Family Study on Determinants of Food Choice (NFS); Potsdam, Germany

From: The NutriAct Family Study: a web-based prospective study on the epidemiological, psychological and sociological basis of food choice

Level Concept Instruments and scales Construct Applied in questionnaire no. N items Short description
INDIVIDUAL Food responsiveness Power of Food Scale (PFS) Appetite 3 15 The PFS assesses the psychological impact of living in food-abundant environments (appetite for palatable foods)
Short version Behavioural Inhibition Scale (BIS-15) Approach and avoidance 3 15 The BIS-15 measures on two scales dispositional differences in behavioural approach (BAS-scale) and inhibition (BIS-scale)
Food Craving Questionnaire (FCQ-T-reduced) Food craving 3 15 The FCQ assesses craving for a variety of foods covering behavioural, cognitive and physiological aspects of craving
Reward-based Eating Drive Scale (RED) Reward-based (over-) eating 4 9 The RED measures the vulnerability to weight-gain associated behaviours such as drive to overeat, lack of control/satiation, preoccupation with food
Reward-Responsiveness-Scale (RR-Scale) Reward responsiveness 4 8 + 2 a The RR-scale assesses the extent to which an individual is sensitive to signals of reward
Personality Big 5 Personality 4 16 The scale assesses five personality dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, compatibility, and conscientiousness
Resilience Resilience 4 15 The scale assesses stress, coping ability and, as such, could be an important target of treatment in anxiety, depression, and stress reactions
Dispositional Optimism Optimism 4 5 Dispositional optimism has been defined in terms of life engagement and generalized positive outcome expectancies for one’s future
SEA-K Social desirability 4 2 The SEA-K measures socially desirable responses
Eating behaviour Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) Intuitive eating 4 23 The IES-2 assesses intuitive eating that is eating in line with hunger and satiety cues
Self-Report Index of Habit Strength (SRHI) Habit strength 3 12 The SRHI measures habit strength of eating a plant-based diet
Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) External, emotional and restrictive eating 4 30 The DEBQ assesses three different eating styles namely external, emotional and restrictive eating
Food Neophobia Scale (FNS) Food Neophobia 4 8 The FNS assesses a reluctance to eat and/or to avoid novel foods
Dieting Dieting 2 3 These items asses dieting habits
Nutrition self-efficacy Nutrition self-efficacy 4 5 a These items asses nutrition self-efficacy
Self-regulation Short Version of the Self-Control Scale (SCS-K-D) Self-control 4 13 The SCS-K-D measures general self-control abilities
Self-Regulation Scale (SRS) Self-regulation 4 7 The SRS measures general self-regulation skills
General Self-Efficacy Scale-6 (GSE-6) Self-efficacy 4 6 The GSE-6 measures general self-efficacy
INDIVIDUAL Socio-cognitive variables Willingness to change Willingness to change 4 1 a Willingness to change assesses if and when an individual wants to change its nutritional habits in the direction of eating more plant-based foods
Outcome expectations Outcome expectations 4 25 a Outcome expectations ask for the perceived consequences (pros and cons) of eating more plant-based foods
Risk perception Risk perception 4 3 a Risk perception measures the extent to which an individual thinks that not eating plant-based foods can lead to negative health consequences
Perceived behavioural control Perceived behavioural control 4 5 a Perceived behavioural control measures the extent to which eating more plant-based foods is within one’s control
Norms Norms 4 4 a These items asses the perceived pressure of family and friends to eat more plant-based foods
Attitudes Attitudes 4 10 a These items asses the individual’s attitudes towards eating more plant-based foods
Lifestyle Physical activity Physical activity 2 75 Development of an improved physical activity index, which is able to categorize study participants into activity categories but may also be used as a continuous measure that reflects physical activity and sedentary time
Life situation Dietary change due to illness Dietary change 1 19 These items asses dietary changes due to illness
Lifetime Alcohol and Smoking Lifetime 2 5 + 1 These items asses alcohol intake and smoking
Quality of life (SF-8) Quality of life 2 8 Health-related quality of life is an individual’s or a group’s perceived physical and mental health over time
Amsterdam Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (A-IADL) Instrumental Activities of Daily Living 2 6 The A-IADL-Q is a disease-specific IADL questionnaire, aimed at measuring IADL problems in early dementia
Socio-economic and sociodemographic status Individual and micro environment socio-economic status 1 19 These items assess the personal socio-economic status as well as socio-economic variables of the micro environment (i.e. background family, partner)
INTERPERSONAL Social values orientation social influence and nutrition social influence and nutrition 3 14 Development of a short item list to evaluate familiar taste and cooking preferences in relation to the actual social setting
nutrition and lifestyle habits eating values 3 10 a The instrument is based on BZgA survey and evaluates different nutritional orientations regarding daily food habits
Socio-cultural habits Human Value Scale (HVS) Human Value Scale (HVS) 3 21 The Human Values Scale (HVS) of the European Social Survey (ESS) is a measure that classifies respondents according to ten basic value orientations: achievement, benevolence, conformity, hedonism, power, security, self-direction, stimulation, tradition, and universalism
Construct of cultural activities Cultural activities 3 40 The questionnaire evaluates how cultural assets influence the individual lifestyle relative to other socio-demographic factors
Familial shaping Familial eating habits Familial eating habits 1 15 These items asses familial eating habits and eating traditions
Familial attitudes Familial attitudes 1 10 a These items asses the familial attitudes towards eating more plant-based foods
ENVIRONMENTAL Familial network Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics Family relations: Contact, emotional closeness, travel-time distance 2 10 a Short scale based on pairfam survey, evaluates familial relationships and emotional closeness
Number of siblings Number of siblings 1 1 This item assesses the number of siblings
Place of residence Rural and urban living environment Place of residence 3 4 These items asses the place of residence in respect to rural and urban areas
OUTCOME Dietary intake Food Frequency Questionnaire Habitual diet 1 188 For the repeated dietary assessment in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study, a simple FFQ with low respondent burden was developed to measure dietary intake
24 h food list Habitual diet Single questionnaires additional to the main survey 90 To assess dietary intake a short 24-h food list based on German survey data was developed. In a second step, evaluating the feasibility and acceptability of repeated applications of this tool by study participants of the pretest of the German National Cohort study during a 6-month period
  1. a modified version