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Table 2 Summary characteristics of included studies (n = 83)

From: The economic burden of cardiovascular disease and hypertension in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Characteristic/level No. studies (%)
Study scope
 Institutional 40 (48)
 National 30 (36)
 Regional 9 (11)
 City 1 (1)
 Other 1 (1)
 International 2 (1)
CVD category
 Stroke 24 (29)
 Hypertension 18 (22)
 Coronary heart disease 17 (20)
 Generic CVD 20 (24)
 Heart failure 4 (5)
Care setting
 Secondary + outpatient 38 (46)
 Secondary 22 (26)
 Tertiary 17 (20)
 Primary 6 (7)
Study design
 Retrospective cost study 34 (43)
 Cost-of-illness study 14 (18)
 Database analysis 11 (14)
 Prospective cost study 10 (13)
 Mathematical model 7 (9)
 Other 4 (5)
Included a control group [YES] 5 (6)
Economic perspective
 Provider 29 (35)
 Societal 18 (22)
 Patient 17 (21)
 Other 10 (12)
 Third-party payer 7 (9)
 Unclear 1 (1)